Balancing the Material and the Ideal

  • Karen Lovejoy Knight
Part of the Palgrave Studies in the History of Economic Thought book series (PHET)


This chapter presents a reconstruction of aspects of Arthur Cecil Pigou’s philosophical biography. Utilitarian traditions as they pertain to the study of political economy in Britain are noted and then placed in the context of changes that occurred in philosophy and science during the second half of the nineteenth century. It is argued that the philosophical influences dominant in Britain during the period of Alfred Marshall’s formative intellectual development, which broadly corresponds with the early period of British idealism, are distinct in many ways from the influences that had become prominent by Pigou’s undergraduate years at Cambridge (and in the period up to the First World War). It is argued that these divergent philosophical frameworks explain some of the differences in Marshall’s and Pigou’s respective philosophical visions of the representation of economic theory.


Utilitarianism British idealism Neo-Hegelianism Nietzsche Moral Sciences 


Archival Material

  1. King’s College. n.d. Library Listing of Contents of Pigou’s Remaining Private Library After Death. In Pigou Collection, KCAC/6/1/11/36. Cambridge: King’s College Archive Centre.Google Scholar

Published Material

  1. Albertazzi, Liliana. 2006. Immanent Realism: An Introduction to Brentano. In Studies in Epistemology, Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, ed. V.F. Hendricks and J. Symons. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Aldrich, John. 1996. The Course of Marshall’s Theorizing About Demand. History of Political Economy 38 (1): 15–44.Google Scholar
  3. Aslanbeigui, Nahid. 1992. Pigou’s Inconsistencies or Keynes’s Misconceptions? History of Political Economy 24 (2): 413–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aslanbeigui, Nahid, and Guy Oakes. 2012. On Pigou’s Theory of Economic Policy Analysis. Œconomia 2 (2): 123–150.Google Scholar
  5. Backhaus, Jürgen G., and Wolfgang Drechsler. 2006. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) Economy and Society. In The European Heritage in Economics and the Social Sciences, ed. Jürgen G. Backhaus and Frank H. Stephen. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Backhouse, Roger E. 2006. Sidgwick, Marshall, and the Cambridge School of Economics. History of Political Economy 38 (1): 15–44. Scholar
  7. Backhouse, Roger E., and Tamotsu Nishizawa. 2010. No Wealth But Life: Welfare Economics and the Welfare State in Britain, 1880–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balfour, Gerald William. 1911. Professor Pigou on Cross-Correspondence. Society of Psychical Research Proceedings 25: Part 62.Google Scholar
  9. Barnett, Vincent. 2015. Keynes and the Psychology of Economic Behaviour: From Stout and Sully to the General Theory. History of Political Economy 47 (2): 307–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartlett, F.C. 1925. James Ward 1843–1925. American Journal of Psychology 36: 449–453.Google Scholar
  11. Beiser, F.C. 2013. Late German Idealism: Trendelenburg and Lotze. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ———. 2014. The Genesis of Neo-Kantianism, 1796–1880. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell, David. 1999. The Revolution of Moore and Russell: A Very British Coup? Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 44: 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bentham, Jeremy. 1776. A Fragment on Government. London: T. Payne.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 1789. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislations. London: T. Payne and Son.Google Scholar
  16. Black, R.C. 1990. Jevons, Marshall and the Utilitarian Tradition. Scottish Journal of Political Economy 37 (1): 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bohm, David. 1952. A Suggested Interpretation of the Quantum Theory in Terms of “Hidden” Variables. II. Physical Review 85 (2): 180–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bosanquet, Bernard. 1912. The Principle of Individuality and Value. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Boucher, David, and Andrew Vincent. 2012. British Idealism, Continuum Guides for the Perplexed. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  20. Cahill, Kevin M. 2011. The Fate of Wonder: Wittengenstein’s Critique of Metaphysics and Modernity. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Champernowne, D.G. 1959. Arthur Cecil Pigou 1877–1959. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 122 (2): 263–265.Google Scholar
  22. Clark, Maudemarie, and David Dudrick. 2012. The Soul of Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coats, A.W. 1992. On the History of Economic Thought: American and British Essays. Vol. 1. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Coats, B.W., and Tiziano Raffaelli. 2006. Economics and Ethics. In The Elgar Companion to Alfred Marshall, ed. Tiziano Raffaelli, Giacomo Becattini, and Marco Dardi. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  25. Collard, David. 1996. Pigou and Future Generations: A Cambridge Tradition. Cambridge Journal of Economics 20 (5): 585–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ———. 2011. Generations of Economists. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Collini, S. 2011. My Role and Their Duties: Sidgwick as a Philosopher, Professor and Public Moralist. In Henry Sidgwick, ed. Rodd Harrison, 9–50. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cook, Simon J. 2009. The Intellectual Foundations of Alfred Marshall’s Economic Science: A Rounded Globe of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ———. 2012. On Marshall’s Idealism. The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 19 (1): 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crisp, Roger. 1996. The Dualism of Practical Reason. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series 96: 53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dappiano, Luigi. 1997. Cambridge and the Austrian Connection. In Itinere: European Cities and the Birth of Modern Scientific Philosophy, ed. Robert Poli, 99–124. Amsterdam: Rodopi B.V. Editions.Google Scholar
  32. Dardi, Marco. 2010. Marshall on Welfare, or: The ‘Utilitarian’ Meets the ‘Evolver’. The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 17 (3): 405–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Vries, H. 1904. Species and Varieties: Their Origin by Mutation. Chicago: Open Court.Google Scholar
  34. Deleuze, Gilles. 2006 [1962]. Nietzsche and Philosophy, trans. Hugh Tomlinson and ed. Foreword by Michael Hardt. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  35. van der Schaar, M. 2013. Stout and the Psychological Origins of Analytic Philosophy. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dunham, J., I. Grant, and S. Watson. 2011. Idealism: The History of a Philosophy. Abingdon and Oxford: First published by Acumen, Published 2–14 Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Einstein, Albert. 1905. Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper. Annalen der Physik 17: 891–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. G.F.S. 1924. A Tentative Theory of Light Quanta: Louis De Broglie. (Phil. Mag. Feb.). Elsevier Ltd.Google Scholar
  39. Gibbins, John Richard. 2013. John Grote, Cambridge University and the Development of Victorian Thought. UK: Andrews UK Limited.Google Scholar
  40. Green, T.H. 1883. Prolegomena to Ethics. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  41. Groenewegen, P. 1995. A Soaring Eagle: Alfred Marshall 1842–1924 / Peter Groenewegen. Aldershot and Brookfield, VT: E. Elgar.Google Scholar
  42. Hauser, K. 2003. Lotze and Husserl. Archive fur Geschichte der Philosophie 85: 152–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hawtrey, R.G. 1926. The Economic Problem. London: Longmans, Green.Google Scholar
  44. Hayward, F.H. 1901. The True Significance of Sidgwick’s ‘Ethics’. International Journal of Ethics 11 (2): 176–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hicks, J.R. 1939. The Foundations of Welfare Economics. The Economic Journal 49 (196): 696–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hobbes, T. 1909 [1651]. Leviathan, or the Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil. 1st ed. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  47. Hookway, Christopher. 2009. Lotze and the Classical Pragmatists. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy I 1: 1–9.Google Scholar
  48. James, William. 1890. The Principles of Psychology. Boston: Holt.Google Scholar
  49. Kant, I. 2002 [1785]. Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, trans. A. Woods. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Keynes, J.M. 1924. Alfred Marshall, 1842–1924. The Economic Journal 34 (135): 311–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. King, J.E. 2005. Bertrand Russell on Economics, 1889–1918. The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies 25: 5–38.Google Scholar
  52. ———. 2007. Popular Philosophy and Popular Economics: Bertrand Russell, 1919–70. The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies 27: 193–219.Google Scholar
  53. Kraushaar, O. 1938. What James’ Philosophical Orientation Owed to Lotze. The Philosophical Review 47 (5): 517–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuntz, P.G. 1971. Rudolf Hermann Lotze, Philosopher and Critic. In G. Santayana, Lotze System of Philosophy, ed. P.G. Kuntz. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Ladd, G.T. 1886a. Outlines of Aesthetics: Dictated Portions of the Lectures of Hermann Lotze. Boston, MA: Ginn and Company.Google Scholar
  56. ———. 1886b. Outlines of Psychology: Dictated Portions of the Lectures of Hermann Lotze. Boston, MA: Ginn and Company.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 1887. Outlines of Logic and the Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: Dictated Portions of the Lectures of Hermann Lotze. Boston, MA: Ginn and Company.Google Scholar
  58. Lawson, Tony. 2003. Reorienting Economics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Lindsay, T.M. 1876. Hermann Lotze. Mind 1 (3): 363–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Long, E.T. 1995. The Gifford Lectures and the Scottish Personal Idealists. The Review of Metaphysics 49 (2): 365–396.Google Scholar
  61. Lotze, Hermann. 1841. Metaphysik. Leipzig: Weidmann.Google Scholar
  62. ———. 1843. Logik. Leipzig: Weidmann.Google Scholar
  63. ———. Mikrokosmus: Ideen zur Naturgeschichte und Geschichte der Menschheit. 1856–1864. 2nd ed., 1868–1872. 4th ed., 1884–1888.Google Scholar
  64. ———. 1874a. Logic, in Three Books: Of Thought, of Investigation, and of Knowledge, ed. and trans. B. Bosanquet. Oxford: Claredon Press.Google Scholar
  65. ———. 1874b. System der Philosophie. Part 1. Logik: Drei Bücher. Leipzig: S. Hirzel.Google Scholar
  66. ———. 1879. System der Philosophie. Part 1. Metaphysik: Drei Bücher. Leipzig: S. Hirzel.Google Scholar
  67. ———. 1884. Metaphysics, In Three Books: Ontology, Cosmology, and Psychology, ed. and trans. Bernard Bosanqet (English Translation). Oxford: Claredon Press.Google Scholar
  68. ———. 1885. Microcosmus, translated from the German by Elizabeth Hamilton, and ed. E.E. Constance Jones. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.Google Scholar
  69. Mandelbaum, Eric. 2015. Associationist Theories of Thought. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.
  70. Mander, W.J. 2011. British Idealism, A History. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marion, Mathieu. 2009. Theory of Knowledge in Britain From 1860 to 1950, a Non-Revolutionary Account. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 4 (200 Years of Analytical Philosophy): 1–34.Google Scholar
  72. ———. 2010. John Cook Wilson. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.
  73. Marshall, C. 2013. Sidgwick’s Utilitarianism in the Context of the Rise of Idealism: A Reappraisal. Revue d’études benthamiennes [En ligne], 12.Google Scholar
  74. Martinoia, Rozenn. 2003. That Which Is Desired, Which Pleases, and Which Satisfies: Utility According to Alfred Marshall. Journal of the History of Economic Thought 25 (03): 349–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McLure, M. 2010. Pareto, Pigou and Third-Party Consumption: Divergent Approaches to Welfare Theory with Implications for the Study of Public Finance. The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 17 (4): 635–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McLure, Michael. 2013. Assessments of A.C. Pigou’s Fellowship Theses. History of Political Economy 45 (2): 255–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Medema, Steve G. 2009. The Hesitant Hand: Taming Self-Interest in the History of Economic Ideas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Milkov, Nikolay. 2000. Lotze and the Early Cambridge Analytic Philosophy. Prima Philosophia 13: 133–153.Google Scholar
  79. ———. 2003. A Hundred Years of English Philosophy. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. ———. 2008. Russell’s Debt to Lotze. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 39: 186–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. ———. 2013. Rudolf Hermann Lotze (1817–1881). In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. James Fieser and Bradley Dowden.
  82. Mill, John Stuart. 1863. Utilitarianism. London: Parker, Son and Bourn.Google Scholar
  83. ———. 1865. An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green.Google Scholar
  84. ———. 1874. Three Essays on Religion. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer.Google Scholar
  85. Moore, G.E. 1903. Principia Ethica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1896. Thus Spake Zarathustra, translated and introduced by Alexander Tille. London: Henry & Co.Google Scholar
  87. ———. 1907. Beyond Good and Evil. London: Henry & Co.Google Scholar
  88. ———. 1974 [1887]. The Gay Science With a Prelude in Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs, trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Vantage Books.Google Scholar
  89. O’Donnell, Margaret G. 1979. Pigou: An Extension of Sidgwickian Thought. History of Political Economy 11 (4): 588–605. Scholar
  90. Orth, E.W. 1984. Dilthey und Lotze: Zur Wandlung des Philosophiebegriffs in 19 Jahrhundert. Dilthey-Jahrbuch 2: 140–158.Google Scholar
  91. Passmore, John. 1966. A Hundred Years of Philosophy. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  92. ———. 1976. G.F. Stout’s Editorship of Mind (1892–1920). Mind LXXXV (337.17): 17–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Perry, R.B. 1935. The Thought and Character of William James. Vol. 1, 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co.Google Scholar
  94. Pigden, Charles, ed. 1999. Russell on Ethics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. ———. 2014. Russell’s Moral Philosophy. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.
  96. Pigou, A.C. 1901. Robert Browning as a Religious Teacher, Being the Burney Essay for 1900. London: C. J. Clay and Sons.Google Scholar
  97. ———. 1903. Some Remarks on Utility. The Economic Journal 13 (49): 58–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. ———. 1907. Some Points of Ethical Controversy. International Journal of Ethics 18 (1): 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. ———. 1908a. The Problems of Theism, and Other Essays. Macmillan and Co. Limited.Google Scholar
  100. ———. 1908b. The Ethics of Nietzsche. International Journal of Ethics 18 (3): 343–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. ———. 1909. Psychical Research and Survival After Bodily Death. Proceedings of the Society of Psychical Research 23: 286–303.Google Scholar
  102. ———. 1910. Producers’ and Consumers’ Surplus. The Economic Journal 20 (79): 358–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. ———. 1911. Cross-Correspondences: A Reply to Mr Gerald Balfour. Journal of Society for Psychical Research 66 (May): 66–70.Google Scholar
  104. ———. 1912. Wealth and Welfare. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  105. ———. 1913. The Interdependence of Different Sources of Demand and Supply in a Market. The Economic Journal 23 (89): 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. ———. 1920. The Economics of Welfare. 1st ed. London: Macmillan and Co.Google Scholar
  107. ———. 1923. Essays in Applied Economic. London: P.S. King and Sons.Google Scholar
  108. ———. 1927. Industrial Fluctuations. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  109. ———. 1933. The Theory of Unemployment. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  110. ———. 1941. Employment and Equilibrium: A Theoretical Discussion. London: Macmillan & Co.Google Scholar
  111. ———. 1945. Lapses from Full Employment. London: Macmillan & Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  112. ———. 1952. Essays in Economics. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  113. Preti, Consuelo. 2008. On the Origins of the Contemporary Notion of Propositional Content: Anti-Psychologism in Nineteenth-Century Psychology and G.E. Moore’s Early Theory of Judgment. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 39: 176–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pringle-Pattison, A.S. 1890. Scottish Philosophy: A Comparison of the Scottish and German Answers to Hume. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons.Google Scholar
  115. ———. 1908a. Henry Sidgwick. A Memoir by A. Sidgwick and E. M. Sidgwick. Mind 17 (65): 88–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. ———. 1908b. Review Article: Henry Sidgwick, by A.S. and E.M.S.; Memoir of Thomas Hill Green by R.L. Nettleship; T.H. Green. Mind New Series 17 (65): 88–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Raffaelli, Tiziano. 1994a. Marshall’s Early Philosophical Writings. Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology Archival Supplement (4): 51–158.Google Scholar
  118. ———. 1994b. Marshall on “Machinery and Life”. Marshall Studies Bulletin 4: 9–22.Google Scholar
  119. ———. 2012. On Marshall’s Presumed Idealism: A Not on the Intellectual Foundations of Alfred Marshall’s Economic Science. A Rounded Globe of Knowledge. European Journal of Economic History 19 (1): 99–108.Google Scholar
  120. Raffaelli, Tiziano, Giacomo Becattini, and Marco Dardi, eds. 2006. The Elgar Companion to Alfred Marshall. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  121. Rashdall, Hastings. 1907. The Theory of Good and Evil. Vols. 1 and 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Reck, Erich H. 2002. From Frege to Wittgenstein: Perspectives on Early Analytic Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. ———. 2013. Frege, Dedekind, and the Origins of Logicism. History and Philosophy of Logic 34 (3): 242–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Russell, Bertrand. 1903. Principles of Mathematics. New York: W.W. Norton Company Inc.Google Scholar
  125. ———. 1904. Review of Mr G.E. Moore’s Principia Ethica. Independent Review 7 (March): 328–333.Google Scholar
  126. ———. 1921. The Analysis of Mind. London and New York: G. Allen and Unwin and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  127. ———. 1945. A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  128. ———. 1959. My Philosophical Development. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  129. ———. 1994. Foundations of Logic, 1903–05. In The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell, ed. Alasdair Urquhart and Albert C. Lewis, vol. 4. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  130. ———. 2014. The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell, Foundations of Logic. Vol. 4. Routledge: The McMaster University.Google Scholar
  131. Saul, S.B. 1969. The Myth of the Great Depression, 1873–1896. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schneewind, J.B. 1977. Sidgwick’s Ethics and Victorian Moral Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Schultz, B. 2004. Henry Sidgwick, Eye of the Universe: An Intellectual Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Senn, Peter R. 2006. The Influence of Nietzsche on the History of Economic Thought. In Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) Economy and Society, ed. Jürgen G. Backhaus and Wolfgang Drechsler, 9–38. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shionoya, Y. 1991. Sidgwick, Moore and Keynes: A Philosophical Analysis of Keynes’s ‘My Early Beliefs’. In Keynes and Philosophy – Essays on the Origin of Keynes’s Thought, ed. Bradley W. Bateman and John B. Davis, 6–29. Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  136. Sidgwick, Henry. 1874. The Methods of Ethics. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  137. ———. 1886. Outlines of the History of Ethics. London: Macmillan and Co.Google Scholar
  138. ———. 1900. Criteria of Truth and Error. Mind 9 (33): 8–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Skelton, A. 2011. Ideal Utilitarianism: Rashdall and Moore. In Underivative Duty: British Moral Philosophers from Sidgwick to Ewing, ed. T. Hurka, 45–65. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Skidelsky, Edward. 2007. The Strange Death of British Idealism. Philosophy and Literature 31 (1): 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Skowronski, K.P. 2010. Review of Josiah Royce in Focus Jacquelyn Ann K. Kegley. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 11 (1): 1–7.Google Scholar
  142. Soffer, Reba N. 1978. Ethics and Society in England: The Revolution in the Social Sciences 1870–1914. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California and London: University of California Press, Ltd.Google Scholar
  143. Sorley, William R. 1885. On the Ethics of Naturalism. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood and Sons.Google Scholar
  144. Sorley, W.R., and G.F. Stout, eds. 1927. Essays in Philosophy By James Ward: With a Memoir by Olwen Ward Campbell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Spencer, H. 1855. Principles of Psychology. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Stewart, Herbert. 1909. Some Criticisms of the Nietzsche Revival. International Journal of Ethics 19 (4): 427–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Stirling, J. 1865. The Secret of Hegel. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd; London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  148. Stout, G.F. 1898. A Manual of Psychology. Foxton, near Cambridge: University Tutorial Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  149. ———. 1905. Things and Sensations. London: British Academy: Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press Warehouse.Google Scholar
  150. Sullivan, Stephen J. 2009. Nietzsche’s Anticipation of Russell. The Bertrand Russell Society Quarterly, 140–141 (November 2008–February 2009).
  151. Thatcher, David S. 1970. Nietzsche in England 1890–1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  152. The University of Cambridge. 1899. The Cambridge University Calendar for the Year 1899–1900, ed. The University of Cambridge. Cambridge: Deighton Bell and Co.Google Scholar
  153. ———. 1900. The Cambridge University Calendar for the Year 1900–1901. Cambridge: Deighton Bell and Co.Google Scholar
  154. Ward, James. 1886. Psychology. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Edinburgh: Black.Google Scholar
  155. ———. 1893. The Moral Sciences Tripos, Student’s Guide Part IX, ed. The University of Cambridge. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell and Co.Google Scholar
  156. ———. 1899a. Naturalism and Agnosticism. The Gifford Lectures Delivered Before the University of Aberdeen in the Years 1896–1898. London: Adam and Charles Black.Google Scholar
  157. ———.1899b [1893]. Student Guide, Moral Sciences Tripos, ed. The University of Cambridge. Cambridge: Deighton Bell and Co.Google Scholar
  158. ———. 1911. The Realm of Ends or Pluralism and Theism. The Gifford Lectures Delivered in the University of St. Andrews in the Years 1907–10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Whitaker, John K. 1975. The Early Economic Writings of Alfred Marshall, 1867–1890. London: Macmillan for the Royal Economic Society.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. ———. 1977. Some Neglected Aspects of Alfred Marshall’s Economic and Social Thought. History of Political Economy 9 (2): 161–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. ———. ed. 1996. The Correspondence of Alfred Marshall Economist. Vols. 1–3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  162. Wicks, R. 2015. Arthur Schopenhauer. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta, Spring ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
  163. Wilson, Fred. 2014. John Stuart Mill. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.
  164. Woodward, William Ray. 2015. Hermann Lotze, An Intellectual Biography. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Yamazaki, Satoshi. 2008. Pigou’s Ethics and Welfare. Japan: Hitotsubashi University.Google Scholar
  166. ———. 2012. Need and Distribution in Pigou’s Economic Thinking. Working Papers. Japan: Kochi University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Lovejoy Knight
    • 1
  1. 1.Independent ScholarDuncraigAustralia

Personalised recommendations