Advertisement

The Multipurpose Lunar Base as a First-Line Biosphere Defense and as a Gateway to the Universe

  • Nikola SchmidtEmail author
  • Carlos Manuel Entrena Utrilla
  • Petr Boháček
  • Jackelynne Silva-Martinez
  • Pete Worden
Chapter
Part of the Space and Society book series (SPSO)

Abstract

This concluding chapter shows practically that planetary defense is not about securing the mere absence of threat. Deflecting asteroids does not necessarily require its own dedicated technology. Quite the contrary, planetary defense can and should be approached as a civilian and scientific endeavor with historical importance. This will be challenging, but if we can build a laser capable of sending nanoprobes to the nearest stars at 20% light speed and use the same installation for possible asteroid deflection, then we should not need to rely on militarily oriented planetary defense by a leading nation. In this chapter, we discuss the associated challenges and required technologies, and also that our community of fate can become a security community—a community in which we do not perceive one another as enemies but as allies. We explain the science of Moon survival and structures for the multipurpose lunar base, as well as the main issues of building a super powerful laser on the Moon. The same installation can be built on Earth if we can reach a breakthrough in global governance. The chapter ends by discussing the notion that planetary defense is not national defense.

Keywords

Multipurpose lunar base Laser ablation Laser propulsion Interstellar travel Security communities Cosmopolitanism 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by the grant awarded by the Technological Agency of the Czech Republic, project TL01000181: “A multidisciplinary analysis of planetary defense from asteroids as the key national policy ensuring further flourishing and prosperity of humankind both on Earth and in Space,” and co-funded by the Institute of Political Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague.

References

  1. Barbee, B. W., Syal, M. B., Dearborn, D., Gisler, G., Greenaugh, K., Howley, K. M., et al. (2018). Options and uncertainties in planetary defense: Mission planning and vehicle design for flexible response. Acta Astronautica, 143(August 2017), 37–61. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.10.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnett, A. (1998). Summary: Security CommunitiesGoogle Scholar
  3. Cadogan, D., Stein, J., & Grahne, M. (1999). Inflatable composite habitat structures for lunar and mars exploration. Acta Astronautica, 44(7–12), 399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cofield, C. (2017). President Trump Directs NASA to Return to the Moon, Then Aim for Mars. space.com. https://www.space.com/39050-trump-directs-nasa-humans-to-moon.html. Accessed 12 July 2018
  5. Deutsch, K. (1957). Political Community and the North Atlantic Area. The European UnionGoogle Scholar
  6. Ditrych, O. (2014). Security community: A future for a troubled concept? International Relations, 28(3), 350–366. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117814545952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Forward, R. L. (1984). Roundtrip interstellar travel using laser-pushed lightsails. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 21(2), 187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Foust, J. (2018a). NASA authorization bill increases emphasis on commercial partnerships. Spacenews. http://spacenews.com/nasa-authorization-bill-increases-emphasis-on-commercial-partnerships/. Accessed 23 April 2018
  9. Foust, J. (2018b). NASA argues Resource Prospector no longer fit into agency’s lunar exploration plans. spacenews.com. https://spacenews.com/nasa-argues-resource-prospector-no-longer-fit-into-agencys-lunar-exploration-plans/. Accessed 12 July 2018
  10. Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Hopkin, J.-M., Burns, D., & Watson, I. (n.d.). LASER BEES. A Concept for Asteroid Deflection & Hazard Mitigation. http://www.planetary.org/explore/projects/laser-bees/Gibbings-Laser-Bees-201202.pdf
  11. Hall, A., & Miller, C. (2016). A Summary of the Economic Assessment and Systems Analysis of an Evolvable Lunar Architecture That Leverages Commercial Space Capabilities and Public–Private Partnerships. New Space, 4(1), 4–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/space.2015.0037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Held, D. (2010). Cosmopolitanism: Ideals and Realities. PolityGoogle Scholar
  13. Inglis, D. (2014). Cosmopolitans and cosmopolitanism: Between and beyond sociology and political philosophy. Journal of Sociology, 50(2), 99–114. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783312438788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jurvetson, S. (2014). Moon Base Alpha — Strategies for Low Cost Lunar Settlement Workshop at DFJ. Presentation on August 23, 2018. Flicker.com - a report from a presentation. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/30929394984. Accessed 10 July 2018
  15. Kepler, J. (1611). Ioannis Kepleri Mathematici Caesarei Dissertatio, cum nuncio sidereo, nuper ad mortales misso a Galilaeo Galilaeo, Mathematico Patauino. Francofurti: Apud D. Zachariam PaltheniumGoogle Scholar
  16. Kessler, O., & Guillaume, X. (2012). Everyday practices of international relations: People in organizations. Journal of International Relations and Development, 15(1), 110–120. doi: https://doi.org/10.1057/jird.2011.29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kettley, S. (2018). Moon colony: Amazon chief Jeff Bezos targets moon for Blue Origin lunar colony by 2023. express.co.uk. https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/984907/Moon-colony-Jeff-Bezos-Amazon-Blue-Origin-NASA. Accessed 10 July 2018
  18. Lebedev, P. (1901). Untersuchungen über die Druckkräfte des Lichtes. Annalen der PhysikGoogle Scholar
  19. Lubin, P. (2016). A roadmap to interstellar flight. JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 69(2–3), 40–72Google Scholar
  20. Lubin, P., Hughes, G. B., Eskenazi, M., Kosmo, K., Johansson, I. E., Griswold, J., et al. (2016). Directed energy missions for planetary defense. Advances in Space Research, 58(6), 1093–1116. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2016.05.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Musk, E. (2017). Making Humans a Multi-Planetary Species. New Space, 5(2), 46–61. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/space.2017.29009.emuCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nakamura, Y., & Furukawa, Y. (2017). Space Startup Raises $90 Million to Start Moon Ads by 2020 - Bloomberg Businessweek Middle East. Bloomberg Businessweek. http://businessweekme.com/2017/12/14/space-startup-raises-90-million-start-moon-ads-2020/. Accessed 23 April 2018
  23. Nyman, J. (2016). What is the value of security? Contextualising the negative/positive debate. Review of International Studies, 42(05), 821–839. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210516000140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Phipps, C., Birkan, M., Bohn, W., Eckel, H.-A., Horisawa, H., Lippert, T., et al. (2010). Review: Laser-Ablation Propulsion. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 26(4), 609–637. doi: https://doi.org/10.2514/1.43733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pittman, R. B., Harper, L. D., Newfield, M. E., & Rasky, D. J. (2016). Lunar Station: The Next Logical Step in Space Development. New Space, 4(1), 7–14. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/space.2015.0031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Riley, J., Lubin, P., Hughes, G. B., O’Neill, H., Meinhold, P., Suen, J., et al. (2014). Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection. Proceedings of SPIE 9226, Nanophotonics and Macrophotonics for Space Environments VIII, 9226, 922606-922606–15. doi:10.1117/12.2061355Google Scholar
  27. Sharkov, D. (2018). Russia Will Go to the Moon Next Year With First Lander in Decades. Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/russia-will-go-moon-next-year-first-lander-decades-790446. Accessed 23 April 2018
  28. Sherwood, B. (2005). Lunar architecture and urbanism. SAE transactions, 354–361Google Scholar
  29. Silva-Martinez, J. (2016). Human systems integration: process to help minimize human errors, a systems engineering perspective for human space exploration missions. REACH, 2, 8–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thangavelu, M., & McVicker, J. M. (2015). QBOLT - Directed Energy System Concepts for Asteroid Threat Mitigation. In 4th IAA Planetary Defense Conference – PDC 2015 (pp. 13–17). Frescati, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  31. Thangavelu, M., & Vasmate, V. (2016). LUNAR SENTINEL : Planetary Defense from the Moon. AIAA SPACE2, 5475Google Scholar
  32. The White House. (2018). National Near-Earth Object Preparedness Strategy and Action Plan. http://www.whitehouse.gov/ostp. Accessed 6 July 2018
  33. Utrilla, C. M.E (2017). Establishing a framework for studying the emerging cislunar economy. Acta Astronautica, 141, 209–218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.10.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. VodafoneGroup. (2018). Vodafone and Nokia to create first 4G network on Moon. http://www.vodafone.com/content/index/media/vodafone-group-releases/2018/vodafone-and-nokia-to-create-first-4g-network-on-moon.html#. Accessed 23 April 2018Google Scholar
  35. Winner, L. (2003). Do artifacts have politics? Technology and the Future, 109(1), 148–164. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/20024652
  36. Zuniga, A. F., Rasky, D., & Pittman, R. B. (2015). Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars. AIAA Space 2015 Conference and Exposition, 1–24. doi: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4408
  37. Zürn, M. (2018). A Theory of Contested Global Governance, 9(1), 138–145. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12521CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikola Schmidt
    • 1
  • Carlos Manuel Entrena Utrilla
    • 2
  • Petr Boháček
    • 3
  • Jackelynne Silva-Martinez
    • 4
  • Pete Worden
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Political Science, Institute of Political Studies, Faculty of Social SciencesCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Independent ResearcherMadridSpain
  3. 3.Institute of International RelationsPragueCzech Republic
  4. 4.International Space UniversityHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Breakthrough Prize Foundation, Breakthrough StarShotMoffett FieldUSA

Personalised recommendations