Endoscopic Management of Bladder Tumors in Children
Urinary bladder tumors are not common in children and adolescents. They are either urothelial or non-urothelial (Fig. 65.1). The commonest is rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the bladder or prostate/vagina followed by papillary urothelial tumors (Table 65.1) . RMS, being the commonest childhood soft tissue sarcoma, ranks third commonest pediatric solid tumor (5–15%) [2, 3]. A recent analysis of 57 reports of pediatric urothelial bladder tumors which included 127 cases reported patients younger than 20 years old, of which only 21 patients (16.5%) were below 10 years old . Both tumor categories exhibit a 3–9:1 male-to-female preponderance .
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