Laparoscopic Treatment of Esophageal Achalasia

  • Giovanna RiccipetitoniEmail author
  • Francesca Destro
  • Claudio Vella
  • Luciano Maestri
  • Tiziana Russo


Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder that is thought to be due to a dysfunction of the enteric nervous system [1]. It is characterized by loss of ganglion cells with degeneration of inhibitory myenteric plexus that innervates the esophageal body and the region of the lower esophageal sphincter (LOS) of unknown origin. It is hypothesized that decreased nitric-oxide synthase leads to a neuronal excitatory/inhibitory imbalance with esophageal aperistalsis, incomplete LOS relaxation in response to swallowing, and increased LOS resting pressures.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanna Riccipetitoni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francesca Destro
    • 1
  • Claudio Vella
    • 1
  • Luciano Maestri
    • 1
  • Tiziana Russo
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric Surgery Unit, Departement of Paediatric SurgeryBuzzi Children’s HospitalMilanItaly

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