Measurement of Agricultural Productivity and Water Productivity of Crops

  • Suman Lata
Part of the Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research book series (AAHER)


This chapter deals with the measurement of agricultural productivity and water productivity of major crops which plays a significant role in the agricultural development of the state. Agricultural productivity and demarcation of productivity regions have been considered by taking into account four major groups of crops-cereal crops, pulse crops, oilseed crops and cash crops by applying Yang’s ‘crop yield index’ method (1965). Further, crop water requirements, i.e., the evapotranspiration, during the crop growing seasons were calculated applying a statistical formula devised for this purpose and water productivity for four major crops, viz., wheat, rice, maize and sugarcane, were measured for each district of the state. As there are substantial variations in water productivity, some measures have also been put forward for increasing water productivity in the crops considered.


Agricultural productivity Agricultural productivity regions Consumptive water use Crop coefficient approach Karl pearson’s coefficient of correlation Simple linear regression technique Water productivity Yang’s crop yield index method 


  1. Agarwal PC (1965) Measurement of agricultural efficiency in Bastar district: a factoral approach. In: Proceedings of Summer School in Geography (Mimeo) Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar PradeshGoogle Scholar
  2. Amarasinghe UA, Sharma BR (2009) Water productivity of foodgrains in India. In: Kumar MD, Amarasinghe UA (eds) Water productivity improvements in Indian agriculture: potentials, constraints and prospects. IWMI, Colombo, pp 13–54Google Scholar
  3. Amarasinghe UA, Shah T, Malik RPS (2008) India’s water futures: drivers of change, scenarios and issues. In: Amarasinghe UA, Shah T, Malik RPS (eds) India’s water future: scenarios and issues. IWMI, Colombo, pp 3–24Google Scholar
  4. Amarsinghe UA, Malik RPS, Sharma BR (2010) Overcoming growing water scarcity: exploring potential improvements in water productivity in India. Nat Res Forum 34(3):188–199Google Scholar
  5. Aykroyd WR, Doughty J (1970) Wheat in human nutrition. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Bastiaanssen W, Ahmad MD, Tahir Z (2003) Upscaling water productivity in irrigated agriculture. In: Kijne JW, Barker R, Molden D (eds) Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvement. CABI/IWMI, Wallingford/Colombo, pp 289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhalla GS (1978) Spatial patterns of agricultural labour productivity. Yojana 22(3):9–11Google Scholar
  8. Bhalla GS, Tyagi DS (1989) Patterns in Indian agricultural development: a district level study. Institute of Studies in Industrial Development, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhatia SS (1967) A new measure of agricultural efficiency in Uttar Pradesh, India. Econ Polit Wkly 43(3):244–260Google Scholar
  10. Cai X, Rosegrant MW (2003) World water productivity: current situation and future options. In: Kijne JW, Barker R, Molden D (eds) Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvement. IWMI, Colombo, pp 163–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Consultative Committee for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), Technical Advisory Committee (2001) Water and the CGIAR, Discussion paperGoogle Scholar
  12. Dayal E (1984) Agricultural productivity in India: a spatial analysis. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 74(1):98–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Wit CT (1958) Transpiration and crop yields. Versl Landbouwkd Onderz 64(6):1–87Google Scholar
  14. Dehghanisanij H, Oweis T, Quereshi AS (2006) Agricultural water use and management in arid and semi-arid areas: current situation and measures for improvement. Annals of Arid Zone 45(3 & 4):355–378Google Scholar
  15. Dhindwal RK, Kumar S (2005) Evaluation of drip and surface irrigation in sugarcane under semi-arid conditions. J Water Manage 13(1):21–26Google Scholar
  16. Doorenbos J, Kassam AH (1979) Yield response to water, Irrigation and drainage paper 33. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  17. Doorenbos J, Pruitt WO (1977) Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements, Irrigation and drainage paper 24. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  18. Dovring F (1967) Productivity of labour in agricultural production (Agricultural experiment station bulletin no. 726). College of Agriculture, Urbana, University of Illinois, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  19. Enyedi GY (1964) Geographical types of agriculture. In: Pecsi M (ed) Applied geography in Hungary, pp 58–105 BudapestGoogle Scholar
  20. FAO (2002) Crops and drops. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO (2003) World agriculture: towards 2015/2030. Earthscan Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. FAO (2011) Save and grow: a policy maker’s guide to the sustainable intensification of smallholder crop production. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  23. Farre I, Faci JM (2009) Deficit irrigation in maize for reducing agricultural water use in a Mediterranean environment. Agric Water Manag 96(3):383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Food and Agriculture Organization (1998) Crop evapotranspiration, Irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  25. Fulginiti L, Perrin R (1998) Agricultural productivity in developing countries. Agric Econ 19:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ganguli BN (1938) Trends of agriculture and population in the Ganges Valley: a study in agricultural economics. Methuen and co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Garg SK (1995) Irrigation engineering and hydraulic structures. Khanna Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  28. GOI (1999) Integrated water resource development: a plan for action. Report of the national commission on integrated water resources development. Ministry of Water Resources, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  29. Goud JV (1989) Water resources of India and Karnataka: problems and prospects. Agric Situat India 44(5):323–327Google Scholar
  30. Hira GS (2009) Water management in northern states and the food security of India. J Crop Improv 23(2):136–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hirsch HG (1943) Crop yield index numbers. J Farm Econ 25(3):583–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Horring J (1964) Concept of productivity measurement in agriculture on a national scale, vol 57. OECD, Paris Documentation in Food and AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  33. Huntington E, Valkenburg S (1952) Europe. Oxford Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Hussain M (1970) Patterns of crop concentration in Uttar Pradesh. Geogr Rev India 32(3):169–185Google Scholar
  35. Hussain I, Sakthivadivel R, Amarasinghe U (2003) Land and water productivity of wheat in the western Indo-Gangetic Plain of India and Pakistan: a comparative analysis. In: Kijne JW, Barker R, Molden D (eds) Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvement. IWMI, Colombo, pp 255–271Google Scholar
  36. Joshi PK, Jha AK, Wani SP, Joshi L, Shiyani RL (2005) Meta analysis to assess impact of watershed program and people’s action, Comprehensive assessment research report, vol 8. IWMI, ColomboGoogle Scholar
  37. Kanwar JS (1972) Coordinated research in soil productivity and water management. Fertilizer News 17(6):13–26Google Scholar
  38. Karrou M, Oweis T, Enein AE, Sherif M (2012) Yield and water productivity of maize and wheat under deficit and raised bed irrigation practices in Egypt. Afr J Agric Res 7(11):1755–1760Google Scholar
  39. Kendall MG (1939) The geographical distribution of crop productivity in England. J R Stat Soc 102(1):21–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Khusro AM (1965) Measurement of productivity at macro and micro level. J Indian Soc Agric Statis 27(2):278–283Google Scholar
  41. Kijne JW, Barker R, Molden D (2003) Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvements. CABI International, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kumar S, Suresh R, Singh V, Singh AK (2011) Economic analysis of menthol mint cultivation in Uttar Pradesh: a case study of Barabanki district. Agric Econ Res Rev 24(2):345–350Google Scholar
  43. Lata S, Rahman H (2011) Crop-combination and productivity regions in Uttar Pradesh-A correlative analysis. Asian Profile 39(3):289–303Google Scholar
  44. Lee PS (1999) Irrigated agriculture-adding value through technology and management reform. Agric Water Manag 40(1):89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Loomis RA, Barton GT (1961) Productivity of agriculture in the United States 1870–1958, Technical bulletin no. 1238. USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  46. Mackenzie W (1962) The impact of technological change on the efficiency of production in Canadian agriculture. Can J Agric Econ 10(1):41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mahmood N, Ahmad RN (2005) Determination of water requirements and response of wheat to irrigation at different soil moisture depletion levels. Int J Agric Biol 7(5):812–815Google Scholar
  48. Meiburg CO, Brandt K (1962) Agricultural productivity in the United States 1870–1960. Food Res Inst Stud 3(2):63–85Google Scholar
  49. Mishra HS, Rathore TR, Pant RC (1990) Effect of intermittent irrigation on groundwater table contribution, irrigation requirement and yield of rice in Mollisols of the Tarai region. Agric Water Manag 18:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mishra HS, Rathore TR, Tomar VS (1995) Water use efficiency of irrigated wheat in the tarai region of India. Irrig Sci 16:75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Molden D (1997) Accounting for water use and productivity, System-wide initiative for water management (SWIM) paper 1. IWMI, ColomboGoogle Scholar
  52. Molden D, Sakthivadivel R, Habib Z (2001) Basin-level use and productivity of water: examples from South Asia, IWMI research report 49. IWMI, ColomboGoogle Scholar
  53. Molden D, Murray-Rust H, Sakthivadivel R, Makin I (2003) A water-productivity framework for understanding and action. In: Kijne JW, Barker R, Molden D (eds) Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvement. IWMI, Colombo, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  54. Nagarajan S (1998) Perspective on wheat demand and research. In: Nagarajan S, Singh G, Tyagi BS (eds) Wheat research needs beyond 2000. Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal, pp 13–28Google Scholar
  55. Olayide SO, Heady EO (1982) Introduction to agricultural production economics, First edn. Ibadan University Press, IbadanGoogle Scholar
  56. Oommen MA (1962) Agricultural productivity trends in Kerala. Agric Situat India 17(4):333–336Google Scholar
  57. Otegui ME, Andrade FH, Suero EE (1995) Growth water use and kernel abortion of maize subjected to drought at silking. Field Crop Res 40(2):87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pereira A, Pires L (2011) Evapotranspiration and water management for crop production. In: Gerosa G (ed) Evapotranspiration – from measurements to agricultural and environmental applications. InTech Publisher, Shanghai, pp 443–164Google Scholar
  59. Prasad R (2002) Textbook of field crop production. ICAR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  60. Rahman H, Lata S (2012) Comparative analysis of irrigation and cropping intensity in Uttar Pradesh, India. Natl Geogr J India 58(3):25–34Google Scholar
  61. Rehman H (1976) Mechanization of farming and its impact on food crop productivity in Uttar Pradesh. The Geographer 22(1):66–80Google Scholar
  62. Rehman H, Hussain M (2003) Measurement of agricultural efficiency in North Bihar Plain. Natl Geogr J India 49(1):27–32Google Scholar
  63. Rockstrom J, Lannerstad, Falkenmark M (2007) Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(15):6253–6260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosegrant MW, Hazell PBR (2000) Transforming the rural Asian economy: the unfinished revolution. Oxford University Press, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  65. Rosegrant M, Cai X, Cline S (2002) World water and food to 2025: dealing with scarcity. IFPRI, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  66. Sapre SG, Deshpande VD (1964) Inter-district variations in agricultural efficiency in Maharashtra state. Indian J Agric Econ 19(1):242–252Google Scholar
  67. Saran R (1965) Production function approach to the measurement of productivity in agriculture. J Indian Soc Agric Stat 27(2):268Google Scholar
  68. Shafi M (1960) Measurement of agricultural efficiency in Uttar Pradesh. Econ Geogr 36(4):296–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shafi M (1965) Approaches to the measurement of the agricultural efficiency. In: Proceedings of the Summer School in Geography held at Naini Tal. Department of Geography, Aligarh Muslim University, AligarhGoogle Scholar
  70. Shafi M (1967) Food production efficiency and nutrition in India. The Geographer 14:23–27Google Scholar
  71. Shafi M (1969) Can India support five times her population? Science Today 3:21–27Google Scholar
  72. Shafi M (1970) Measurement of food crop productivity in India. Presidential Address, Indian Council of Geographers, Indian Science CongressGoogle Scholar
  73. Shafi M (1972) Measurement of agricultural productivity of the Great Indian Plains. The Geographer 19(1):4–13Google Scholar
  74. Shafi M (1984) Agricultural productivity and regional imbalances. Concept Publishing Company, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  75. Sharma VP (2012) India’s agricultural development under the new economic regime: policy perspective and strategy for the 12th Five Year Plan (Working Paper No. 2011-11-01). Ahmadabad: Indian Institute of ManagementGoogle Scholar
  76. Sharma KS, Samra JS, Singh HP (2001) Influence on boundary plantation of poplar (Populus deltoids M.) on soil-water use and water use efficiency of Wheat. Agric Water Manag 51(3):173–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sharma BR, Rao KV, Vittal KPR (2008) Converting rain into gain: opportunities for realizing the potential of rain-fed agriculture in India. In: Amarasinghe UA, Shah T, Malik RPS (eds) India’s water future: scenarios and issues. IWMI, Colombo, pp 169–180Google Scholar
  78. Sharma DK, Kumar A, Singh KN (1990) Effect of irrigation scheduling on growth, yield and evapotranspiration of wheat in sodic soils. Agric Water Manag 18:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shinde PP, Jadhav SB (2000) Water management with drip irrigation system for sugarcane. In: Proceedings of 62nd Annual Convention of the Sugar Technologists’ Association, India, Agra, India, pp 36–41Google Scholar
  80. Singh VR (1979) A method for analysing agricultural productivity. In: Coppock JT (ed) Agriculture and food supply in developing countries. Published for the Commission on World Food Problems and Agricultural Productivity of the IGU, Department of Geography, University of Edinburg, Edinburg, pp 143–151Google Scholar
  81. Singh RV, Chauhan HS (1996) Irrigation scheduling in wheat under shallow groundwater table conditions. In: Cramp CR, Sadler EJ, Yoder RE (eds) Proceedings of the international conference on evapotranspiration and irrigation scheduling. San Antonio Convention Centre, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
  82. Singh KB, Gajri PR, Arora VK (2001) Modelling the effects on soil and water management practices on the water balance and performance of rice. Agric Water Manag 49(2):77–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh AK, Choudhary BU, Bouman BAM (2002) Effect of rice establishments methods on crop performance, water use, and mineral nitrogen. In: Zwart SJ, Bastiaanssen GM (eds) Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize. Agricult Water Manage 69(2):115–133Google Scholar
  84. Sinha BN (1968) Agricultural efficiency in India. The Geographer 15:101–127Google Scholar
  85. Stamp LD (1952) The measurement of agricultural efficiency with special reference to India. Indian Geographical Society, Silver Jubilee Volume, pp 177–178Google Scholar
  86. Stamp LD (1958) The measurement of land resources. The Geographical Review 48(1):110–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tekwa IJ, Bwade EK (2011) Estimation of irrigation water requirement of maize (Zea-mays) using Pan Evaporation method in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. Agric Eng Intl CIGR J 13(1). Retrieved from
  88. Thomption RJ (1926) The productivity of British and Danish farming. J R Stat Soc 89(2):217–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thornthwaite CW (1944) Report of the committee on transpiration and evapotranspiration. Trans Am Geophys Union 25(5):686–693Google Scholar
  90. Tuong TP, Bouman BAM (2003) Rice production in water scarce environments. In: Kijne JW, Barker R, Molden D (eds) Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvement. IWMI, CABI, pp 53–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tuong TP, Bouman BAM, Mortimer (2005) More rice, less water-integrated approaches for increasing water productivity in irrigated rice-based systems in Asia. Plant Prod Sci 8(3):231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Umar N, Rehman H (2011) Crop productivity variations in U.P.: a regional analysis. Natl Geogr J India 57(2):55–64Google Scholar
  93. Vaidyanathan A, Sivasubramaniyan K (2004) Efficiency of water use in agriculture. Econ Polit Wkly 39(27):2989–2996Google Scholar
  94. Yang WY (1965) Methods of farm management investigations for improving farm productivity. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  95. Zaman K, Rahman H (2009) Identification of productivity regions in Ganga-Yamuna doab: a regional approach for agricultural development. Natl Geogr J India 55(3):55–64Google Scholar
  96. Zobel SP (1950) On the measurement of productivity of labour. J Am Stat Soc 45(250):218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zoebl D (2006) Is water productivity a useful concept in agricultural water management? Agric Water Manag 84(3):265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suman Lata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyRamdayalu Singh College, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Bihar UniversityMuzaffarpurIndia

Personalised recommendations