Advertisement

Anesthesia for Pediatric Thoracic Surgery

  • Robert Schwartz
  • Cengiz KarsliEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Pediatric patients present in varying stages of development, from the premature neonate to full-grown teenager. Appreciation of the unique physiologic states associated with the different stages of development will direct anesthetic management. Preoperative evaluation of the small child should include the neonatal history as this may indicate comorbid pulmonary and cardiac disease and linked syndromes which must be investigated. Lung isolation is not always necessary in pediatric thoracic surgery. Appropriate lung isolation techniques will depend on the age and size of the patient as there is no single technique that is suitable for all pediatric patients. Physiologic manifestation of one-lung ventilation may be more pronounced in children than in adults. The compliant rib cage, compressible lung parenchyma, reduced FRC under anesthesia, and higher oxygen consumption in the child contribute to aggravate hypoxemia during lung isolation. Adult thoracic surgery is often related to tumor excision whereas pediatric thoracic disease encompasses a greater variety of pathology. Each specific disease state has its own particular anesthetic considerations and management strategy. Pain management in the pediatric population has evolved to include a greater use of regional and neuraxial techniques, even in the smallest of infants. Postoperative disposition will depend on the type and length of surgery, extent of resection or manipulation, and nature of the underlying condition. Many pediatric patients will require postoperative ventilation or close cardiorespiratory monitoring following the procedure.

Keywords

Bronchial blocker Congenital diaphragmatic hernia Cystic fibrosis Mediastinal mass Pediatric thoracotomy Tracheoesophageal fistula 

References

  1. 1.
    Sweet DG, Halliday HL. The use of surfactants in 2009. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2009;94(3):78–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sekar KC, Corff KE. To tube or not to tube babies with respiratory distress syndrome. J Perinatol. 2009;29(Suppl 2):S68–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Verder H, Bohlin K, Kamper J, Lindwall R, Jonsson B. Nasal CPAP and surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98(9):1400–8. Epub 2009 Jul 1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lista G, et al. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus bi-level nasal CPAP in preterm babies with respiratory distress syndrome: a randomised control trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2010;95(2):F85–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Askie LM, et al. Effects of targeting lower versus higher arterial oxygen saturations on death or disability in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(4):CD011190.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cogo PE, et al. Dosing of porcine surfactant: effect on kinetics and gas exchange in respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):e950–7. Epub 2009 Oct 12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Suresh GK, Soll RF. Overview of surfactant replacement trials. J Perinatol. 2005;25(Suppl 2):S40–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blaise G, et al. Pulmonary arterial hypertension pathophysiology and anesthetic approach. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:1415–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hawkins A, Tulloh R. Treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5(2):509–24. Epub 2009 Jun 7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Konduri GG, Kim UO. Advances in the diagnosis and management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2009;56(3):579–600. Table of Contents.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Knoderer CA, Morris JL, Ebenroth ES. Sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in pediatric patients. Pediatr Cardiol. 2009;30(7):871–82. Epub 2009 Aug 25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krishnan U, Krishnan S, Gewitz M. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children with chronic lung disease with newer oral therapies. Pediatr Cardiol. 2008;29(6):1082–6. Epub 2008 Jul 2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacKnight B, Martinez EA, Simon BA. Anesthetic management of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;12(2):91–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Galante D. Intraoperative management of pulmonary arterial hypertension in infants and children. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2009;22(3):378–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rosenzweig EB, Barst RJ. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: a medical update. Indian J Pediatr. 2009;76(1):77–81. Epub 2009 Apr 18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Friesen RH, Williams GD. Anesthetic management of children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Paediatr Anaesth. 2008;18(3):208–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taylor K, Holtby H. Emergency interventional lung assist for pulmonary hypertension. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(2):382–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ayers J, Graves SA. Perioperative management of total parenteral nutrition, glucose containing solutions, and intraoperative glucose monitoring in paediatric patients: a survey of clinical practice. Paediatr Anaesth. 2001;11(1):41–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fösel TH, Uth M, Wilhelm W, Grüness V. Comparison of two solutions with different glucose concentrations for infusion therapy during laparotomies in infants. Infusionsther Transfusionsmed. 1996;23(2):80–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gauda EB, McLemore GL, Tolosa J, Marston-Nelson J, Kwak D. Maturation of peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in relation to neonatal apnoea. Semin Neonatol. 2004;9(3):181–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Choudhry DK. Single-lung ventilation in pediatric anesthesia. Anesthesiol Clin N Am. 2005;23:693–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rowe R, Andropoulos D, Heard M, et al. Anesthestic management of pediatric patients undergoing thoracoscopy. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1994;8:563–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kubota H, Kubota Y, Toyoda Y, et al. Selective blind endobronchial intubation in children and adults. Anesthesiology. 1987;67:587–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rehman M, Sherlekar S, Schwartz R, et al. One lung anesthesia for video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy in a paediatric patient. Paediatr Anaesth. 1999;9:85–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hammer GB, Harrison TK, Vricella LA, Black MD, Krane EJ. Single lung ventilation in children using a new paediatric bronchial blocker. Paediatr Anaesth. 2002;12(1):69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Takahashi M, Yamada M, Honda I, Kato M, Yamamuro M, Hashimoto Y. Selective lobar – bronchial blocking for pediatric video-assisted thoracic surgery. Anesthesiology. 2001;94(1):170–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chengod S, Chandrasekharan AP, Manoj P. Selective left bronchial intubation and left-lung isolation in infants and toddlers: analysis of a new technique. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005;19(5):636–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gayes JM. Pro: one-lung ventilation is best accomplished with the Univent endotracheal tube. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1993;7:103–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kamaya H, Krishna PR. New endotracheal tube (univent tube) for selective blockade of one lung. Anesthesiology. 1985;63:342–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hammer GB, Brodsky JB, Redpath JH, Cannon WB. The Univent tube for single-lung ventilation in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth. 1998;8(1):55–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Arndt GA, DeLessio ST, Kranner PW, Orzepowski W, Ceranski B, Valtysson B. One-lung ventilation when intubation is difficult – presentation of a new endobronchial blocker. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1999;43(3):356–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yun ES, Saulys A, Popic PM, Arndt GA. Single-lung ventilation in a pediatric patient using a pediatric fibreoptically-directed wire-guided endobronchial blocker. Can J Anaesth. 2002;49(3):256–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li PY, Gu HH, Liang WM. Sequential one-lung ventilation using one Arndt endobronchial blocker in a pediatric patient undergoing bilateral, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). J Clin Anesth. 2009;21(6):464.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hammer GB, Fitzmaurice BG, Brodsky JB. Methods for single-lung ventilation in pediatric patients. Anesth Analg. 1999;89:1426–9.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Klein U, Karzai W, Bloos F, Wohlfarth M, Gottschall R, Fritz H, et al. Role of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in conjunction with the use of double-lumen tubes for thoracic anesthesia: a prospective study. Anesthesiology. 1998;88(2):346–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fitzmaurice BG, Brodsky JB. Airway rupture from double-lumen tubes. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1999;13:322–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tezel C, Okur E, Baysungur V. Iatrogenic tracheal rupture during intubation with a double-lumen tube. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58(1):54–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nicolai T. Pediatric bronchoscopy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001;31(2):150–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Slonim AD, Ognibene FP. Amnestic agents in pediatric bronchoscopy. Chest. 1999;116(6):1802–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berkenbosch JW, Graff GR, Stark JM, Ner Z, Tobias JD. Use of a remifentanil-propofol mixture for pediatric flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy sedation. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14(11):941–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Larsen R, Galloway D, Wadera S, Kjar D, Hardy D, Mirkes C, Wick L, Pohl JF. Safety of propofol sedation for pediatric outpatient procedures. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009;48(8):819–23. Epub 2009 May 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tobias JD. Sedation and anesthesia for pediatric bronchoscopy. Curr Opin Pediatr. 1997;9(3):198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dilos BM. Anesthesia for pediatric airway endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2009;47:55–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Seybold JL. The use of dexmedetomidine during laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and tracheal extubation following tracheal reconstruction. Pediatr Anesth. 2007;17:1212–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Niggemann B, Haack M, Machotta A. How to enter the pediatric airway for bronchoscopy. Pediatr Int. 2004;46(2):117–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zestos MM, Bhattacharya D, Rajan S, Kemper S, Haupert M. Propofol decreases waste anesthetic gas exposure during pediatric bronchoscopy. Laryngoscope. 2004;114(2):212–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nussbaum E, Zagnoev M. Pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscopy with a laryngeal mask airway. Chest. 2001;120(2):614–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bandla HP, Smith DE, Kiernan MP. Laryngeal mask airway facilitated fibreoptic bronchoscopy in infants. Can J Anaesth. 1997;44(12):1242–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Naguib ML, Streetman DS, Clifton S, Nasr SZ. Use of laryngeal mask airway in flexible bronchoscopy in infants and children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005;39(1):56–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Somri M, Barna Teszler C, Tome R, Kugelman A, Vaida S, Gaitini L. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy through the laryngeal mask airway in a small, premature neonate. Am J Otolaryngol. 2005;26(4):268–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Picard E, Schwartz S, Goldberg S, Glick T, Villa Y, Kerem E. A prospective study of fever and bacteremia after flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children. Chest. 2000;117(2):573–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Picard E, Goldberg S, Virgilis D, Schwartz S, Raveh D, Kerem E. A single dose of dexamethasone to prevent postbronchoscopy fever in children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Chest. 2007;131(1):201–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nussbaum E. Pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscopy: clinical experience with 2,836 bronchoscopies. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2002;3(2):171–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Salva PS, Theroux C, Schwartz D. Safety of endobronchial biopsy in 170 children with chronic respiratory symptoms. Thorax. 2003;58(12):1058–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shah R, Reddy AS, Dhende NP. Video assisted thoracic surgery in children. J Minim Access Surg. 2007;3(4):161–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Oak SN, Parelkar SV, Satishkumar KV, Pathak R, Ramesh BH, Sudhir S, et al. Review of video-assisted thoracoscopy in children. J Minim Access Surg. 2009;5(3):57–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    de Campos JR, Andrade Filho LO, Werebe EC, Minamoto H, Quim AO, Filomeno LT, et al. Thoracoscopy in children and adolescents. Chest. 1997;111(2):494–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tobias JD. Thoracic surgery in children. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2001;14(1):77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sundararajan L, Parikh DH. Evolving experience with video-assisted thoracic surgery in congenital cystic lung lesions in a British pediatric center. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42(7):1243–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dutta S, Mihailovic A, Benson L, Kantor PF, Fitzgerald PG, Walton JM, Langer JC, Cameron BH. Thoracoscopic ligation versus coil occlusion for patent ductus arteriosus: a matched cohort study of outcomes and cost. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(7):1643–8. Epub 2007 Nov 20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Efrati O, Barak A. Pleural effusions in the pediatric population. Pediatr Rev. 2002;23:417–26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Praskakis E, et al. Current evidence for the management of paediatric parapneumonic effusions. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012;28(7):1179–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gates RL, et al. Drainage, fibrinolytics, or surgery: a comparison of treatment options in pediatric empyema. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39(3):381–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hawkins JA, et al. Current treatment of pediatric empyema. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;16:196–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Long A-M, et al. ‘Less may be best’-Pediatric parapneumonic effusion and empyema management: lessons from a UK center. J Pediatr Surg. 2016;51:588–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hendaus MA, Janahi IA. Parapneumonic effusion in children: an up-to-date review. Clin Pediatr. 2016;55(1):10–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Israel EN, Blackmer AB. Tissue plasminogen activator for the treatment of parapneumonic effusions in pediatric patients. Pharmacotherapy. 2014;34(5):521–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Krenke K, et al. Clinical characteristics of 323 children with parapneumonic pleural effusion and pleural empyema due to community acquired pneumonia. J Infect Chemother. 2016;22:292–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nezafati MH, Soltani G, Vedadian A. Video-assisted ductal closure with new modifications: minimally invasive, maximally effective, 1,300 cases. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84(4):1343–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mavroudis C. Forty-six years of patient ductus arteriosus division at Children’s Memorial Hospital of Chicago. Standards for comparison. Ann Surg. 1994;220(3):402–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wang JK, Hwang JJ, Chiang FT, Wu MH, Lin MT, Lee WL, Lue HC. A strategic approach to transcatheter closure of patent ductus: gianturco coils for small-to-moderate ductus and Amplatzer duct occluder for large ductus. Int J Cardiol. 2006;106(1):10–5. Epub 2005 Sep 15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Daher AH. Infective endocarditis in neonates. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1995;34(4):198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vanamo K. Video-assisted thoracoscopic versus open surgery for persistent ductus arteriosus. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41(7):1226–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Villa E. Video-assisted thoracoscopic clipping of patent ductus arteriosus: close to the gold standard and minimally invasive competitor of percutaneous techniques. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2006;7(3):210–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Villa E. Paediatric video-assisted thoracoscopic clipping of patent ductus arteriosus: experience in more than 700 cases. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;25(3):387–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Burke RP. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for patent ductus arteriosus in low birth weight neonates and infants. Pediatrics. 1999;104(2 Pt 1):227–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Muralidhar KS, Shetty DP. Ventilation strategy for video-assisted thoracoscopic clipping of patent ductus arteriosus in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2001;11(1):45–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Miyagi K. One-lung ventilation for video-assisted thoracoscopic interruption of patent ductus arteriosus. Surg Today. 2004;34(12):1006–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Stankowski, et al. Minimally invasive thoracoscopic closure versus thoracotomy in children with patent ductus arteriosus. J Surg Res. 2017;208:1–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Odegard KC. Intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during video-assisted throracoscopic surgery for patent ductus arteriosus. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;14(5):562–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Clark DC. Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Am Fam Physician. 1999;59(4):910–6; 919–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Keckler SJ, St Peter SD, Valusek PA, Tsao K, Snyder CL, Holcomb GW 3rd, Ostlie DJ. VACTERL anomalies in patients with esophageal atresia: an updated delineation of the spectrum and review of the literature. Pediatr Surg Int. 2007;23(4):309–13. Epub 2007 Feb 15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Geneviève D, de Pontual L, Amiel J, Sarnacki S, Lyonnet S. An overview of isolated and syndromic oesophageal atresia. Clin Genet. 2007;71(5):392–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Spitz L. Oesophageal atresia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007;2:24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gross RE. The surgery of infancy and childhood. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1953.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Okamoto T, Takamizawa S, Arai H, Bitoh Y, Nakao M, Yokoi A, Nishijima E. Esophageal atresia: prognostic classification revisited. Surgery. 2009;145(6):675–81. Epub 2009 Apr 11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Aziz D, Chait P, Kreichman F, Langer JC. Image-guided percutaneous gastrostomy in neonates with esophageal atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39(11):1648–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Krosnar S, Baxter A. Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula: anesthetic and intensive care management of a series of eight neonates. Paediatr Anaesth. 2005;15(7):541–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lugo B, Malhotra A, Guner Y, Nguyen T, Ford H, Nguyen NX. Thoracoscopic versus open repair of tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2008;18(5):753–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Orford J. Advances in the treatment of oesophageal atresia over three decades: the 1970s and the 1990s. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004;20(6):402–7. Epub 2004 May 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Narang S, Harte BH, Body SC. Anesthesia for patients with a mediastinal mass. Anesthesiol Clin N Am. 2001;19:559–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Takeda SI, Miyoshi S, Akashi A, Ohta M, Minami M, Okumura M, et al. Clinical spectrum of primary mediastinal tumors: a comparison of adult and pediatric populations at a single Japanese institution. J Surg Oncol. 2003;83:24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Davis RD, Oldham NH, Sabiston DC. Primary cysts and neoplasms of the mediastinum: recent changes in clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, management and results. Ann Thorac Surg. 1987;44:229–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sairanen H, Leijala M, Louhimo I. Primary mediastinal tumors in children. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1987;1:148–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Azarow KS, Pearl RH, Zurcher R, Edwards FH, Cohen AJ. Primary mediastinal masses: a comparison of adult and pediatric populations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;106:67–72.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shamberger RC, Holzman RS, Griscom NT, Tarbell NJ, Weinstein HJ. CT quantification of tracheal cross sectional area as a guide to the surgical and anesthetic management of children with anterior mediastinal mass. J Pediatr Surg. 1991;26:138–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sakakeeny-Zaal K. Pediatric orthopnea and total airway obstruction. Am J Nurs. 2007;107:40–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Slinger P, Karsli C. Management of the patient with a large anterior mediastinal mass: recurring myths (Editorial). Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2007;20:1–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hack HA, Wright NB, Wynn RF. The anaesthetic management of children with anterior mediastinal masses. Anaesthesia. 2008;63(8):837–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bechard P, Letourneau L, Lacasse Y, Cote D, Bussieres JS. Perioperative cardiorespiratory complications in adults with mediastinal mass: incidence and risk factors. Anesthesiology. 2004;100:826–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Victory RA, Casey W, Doherty P, Breatnach F. Cardiac and respiratory complications of mediastinal lymphomas. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1993;21:366–9.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sanborn PA, Michna E, Zurokowski D, Burrows PE, Fontaine PJ, Connor L, et al. Adverse cardiovascular and respiratory events during sedation of pediatric patients for imaging examinations. Radiology. 2005;237:288–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bailey PL, Pace NL, Ashburn MA, Moll JW, East KA, Stanley TH. Frequent hypoxemia and apnea after sedation with midazolam and fentanyl. Anesthesiology. 1990;73:826–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Anghelescu DL, Burgoyne LL, Liu T, Li CS, Pui CH, Hudson MM, et al. Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings predict anesthetic complications in children presenting with malignant mediastinal masses. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007;17:1090–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rice TW, Rodriguez RM, Light RW. The superior vena cava syndrome: clinical characteristics and evolving etiology. Medicine. 2006;85:37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Arya LS, Narain S, Tomar S, Thavaraj V, Dawar R, Bhargawa M. Superior vena cava syndrome. Indian J Pediatr. 2002;69:293–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lam JCM, Chui CH, Jacobsen AS, Tan AM, Joseph VT. When is a mediastinal mass critical in a child? An analysis of 29 children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004;20:180–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Azizkhan RG, Dudgeon DL, Buck JR, Colombani PM, Yaster M, Nichols D, et al. Life-threatening airway obstruction as a complication to the management of mediastinal masses in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1985;20(6):816–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Chaignaud BE, Bonsack TA, Kozakewich HP, Shamberger RC. Pleural effusions in lymphoblastic lymphoma: a diagnostic alternative. J Pediatr Surg. 1998;33:1355–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Das DK. Serous effusions in malignant lymphomas: a review. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;3:335–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Güllüoğlu MG, Kiliçaslan Z, Toker A, Kayalci G, Yilmazbayhan D. The diagnostic value of image guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy in equivocal mediastinal masses. Langenbeck’s Arch Surg. 2006;39:222–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chait P, Rico L, Amaral J, Connolly B, John P, Temple M. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy of mediastinal masses in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:S76.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lachar W, Shahab I, Saad A. Accuracy and cost-effectiveness of core needle biopsy in the evaluation of suspected lymphoma: a study of 101 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:1033–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Annessi V, Paci M, Ferrari G, Sgarbi G. Ultrasonically guided biopsy of mediastinal masses. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2003;2:319–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gupta A, Kumar A, Walters S, Chait P, Irwin MS, Gerstle JT. Analysis of needle versus open biopsy for the diagnosis of advanced stage pediatric neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006;47:875–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Borenstein SH, Gerstle T, Malkin D, Thorner P, Filler RM. The effects of prebiopsy corticosteroid treatment on the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphoma. J Pediatr Surg. 2000;35:973–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rampello E, Fricia T, Malaguarnera M. The management of tumor lysis syndrome. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2006;3:438–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Neuman GG, Weingarten AE, Abramowitz RM, Kushins LG, Abramson AL, Ladner W. The anesthetic management of a patient with an anterior mediastinal mass. Anesthesiology. 1984;60:144–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Torchio R, Gulotta C, Perbondi A, Ciacco C, Guglielmo M, Orlandi F, et al. Orthopnea and tidal expiratory flow limitation in patients with euthyroid goiter. Chest. 2003;124:133–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hnatiuk OW, Corcoran PC, Sierra P. Spirometry in surgery for anterior mediastinal masses. Chest. 2001;120:1152–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Vander Els NJ, Sorhage F, Bach AM, Straus DJ, White DA. Abnormal flow volume loops in patients with intrathoracic Hodgkin’s disease. Chest. 2000;117:1256–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Frawley G, Low J, Brown TCK. Anaesthesia for an anterior mediastinal mass with ketamine and midazolam infusion. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1995;23:610–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bergman NA. Reduction in resting end-expiratory position of the respiratory system with induction of anesthesia and neuromuscular paralysis. Anesthesiology. 1982;57:14–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lin SH, Su NY, Hseu SS, Ting CK, Yien HW, Cheng HC, et al. Anesthetic management of patients with giant mediastinal tumors – a report of two cases. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin. 1999;37:133–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Riley RH, Raper GD, Newman MAJ. Helium-oxygen and cardiopulmonary bypass standby in anesthesia for tracheal stenosis. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1994;22:710–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Asai T. Emergency cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with a mediastinal mass. Anaesthesia. 2007;62:859–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Takeda S, Miyoshi S, Omori K, Okumura M, Matsuda H. Surgical rescue for life-threatening hypoxemia caused by a mediastinal tumor. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;68:2324–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Langham MR Jr, Kays DW, Ledbetter DJ, Frentzen B, Sanford LL, Richards DS. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Epidemiology and outcome. Clin Perinatol. 1996;23(4):671–88.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Deeprest J. Current consequences of prenatal diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41(2):423–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Suita S, et al. Fetal stabilization for antenatally diagnosed diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 1999;34(11):1652–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bosenberg AT, Brown RA. Management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008;21(3):323–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bohn D. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:911–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Vitali SH, Arnold JH. Bench-to-bedside review: ventilator strategies to reduce lung injury – lessons from pediatric and neonatal intensive care. Crit Care. 2005;9(2):177–83. Epub 2004 Nov 4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wung JT. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: survival treated with very delayed surgery, spontaneous respiration, and no chest tube. J Pediatr Surg. 1995;30(3):406–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Boloker J. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia in 120 infants treated consecutively with permissive hypercapnea/spontaneous respiration/elective repair. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:357–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kays DW. Detrimental effects of standard medical therapy in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Ann Surg. 1999;230(3):340–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bryner BS, et al. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: does timing of repair matter? J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(6):1165–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Guner YS, et al. Outcome analysis of neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated with venovenous vs. venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(9):1691–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    van den Hout L. Can we improve outcome of congenital diaphragmatic hernia? Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25:733–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Butler E, et al. The Canadian Pediatric Surgery Network (CAPSNet): lessons learned from a national registry devoted to the study of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and gastroschisis. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2015;25(6):474–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Liem NT, Dien TM, Ung NQ. Thoracoscopic repair in the neonatal intensive care unit for congenital diaphragmatic hernia during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2010;20(1):111–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Hsu HT, et al. Total intravenous anesthesia for repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2004;20(9):465–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Terui K, et al. Surgical approaches for neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2015;31:891–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tsao K. Minimally invasive repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46(6):1158–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hussain HK, et al. Imaging-guided core biopsy for the diagnosis of malignant tumors in pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;176(1):43–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Elston WJ, et al. Safety of research bronchoscopy, biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage in asthma. Eur Respir J. 2004;24(3):375–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lex C, et al. Airway eosinophilia in children with severe asthma: predictive values of noninvasive tests. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174(12):1286–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Regamey N, et al. Quality, size, and composition of pediatric endobronchial biopsies in cystic fibrosis. Chest. 2007;131(6):1710–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Molina-Teran A, et al. Safety of endobronchial biopsy in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006;41(11):1021–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Dishop MK, Mallory GB, White FV. Pediatric lung transplantation: perspectives for the pathologist. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2008;11(2):85–105.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Mahmoud M, et al. Dexmedetomidine and ketamine for large anterior mediastinal mass biopsy. Paediatr Anaesth. 2008;18(10):1011–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Cahill AM, et al. CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy in children. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15(9):955–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gluer S, et al. Thoracoscopic biopsy in children with diffuse parenchymal lung disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43(10):992–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kulayat AN, et al. Comparing 30-day outcomes between thoracoscopic and open approaches for resection of pediatric congenital lung malformations: evidence from NSQIP. J Pediatr Surg. 2015;50(1):1716–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kunisaki SM, et al. Thoracoscopic vs open lobectomy in infants and young children with congenital lung malformations. J Am Coll Surg. 2014;218(2):261–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Shah PL, Hansell D, Lawson PR, Reid KBM, Morgan C. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: clinical aspects and current concepts on pathogenesis. Thorax. 2000;55:67–771.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Trapnell BC, Whitsett JA, Nakata K. Mechanisms of disease: pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2527–39.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lippmann M, Mok MS, Wasserman K. Anaesthetic management for children with alveolar proteinosis using extracorporeal circulation. Report of two cases. Br J Anaesth. 1977;49:173–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Mahut B, de Blic J, Le Bourgeois M, Beringer A, Chevalier JY, Scheinmann P. Partial and massive lung lavages in an infant with severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1992;13:50–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Moazam F, Schmidt JH, Chesrown SE, Graves SA, Sauder RA, Drummond J, et al. Total lung lavage for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in an infant without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. J Pediatr Surg. 1985;20:398–401.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Paschen C, Reiter K, Stanzel F, Teschler H, Griese M. Therapeutic lung lavages in children and adults. Respir Res. 2005;6:138.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Paquet C, Karsli C. Technique of lung isolation for whole lung lavage in a child with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:190–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Bliss D, Silen M. Pediatric thoracic trauma. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(11 Suppl):S409–15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Holmes JF, Sokolove PE, Brant WE, Kuppermann N. A clinical decision rule for identifying children with thoracic injuries after blunt torso trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39(5):492–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Peclet MH, et al. Thoracic trauma in children: an indicator of increased mortality. J Pediatr Surg. 1990;25(9):961–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Bonadio WA, Hellmich T. Post-traumatic pulmonary contusion in children. Ann Emerg Med. 1989;18(10):1050–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Karamakar MK, Ho A. Acute pain management of patients with multiple fractured ribs. J Trauma. 2003;54:615–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Cadzow SP, Armstrong KL. Rib fractures in infants: red alert. J Paediatr Child Health. 2000;36:322–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Bulloch B, et al. Cause and clinical characteristics of rib fractures in infants. Pediatrics. 2000;105(4):E48.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Roux P, Fisher RM. Chest injuries in children: an analysis of 100 cases of blunt chest trauma from motor vehicle accidents. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27(5):551–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Haxhija EQ, Nöres H, Schober P, Höllwarth ME. Lung contusion-lacerations after blunt thoracic trauma in children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004;20(6):412–4. Epub 2004 Apr 30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Taira BR, et al. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in pediatric trauma patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10(4):491–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Cullen ML. Pulmonary and respiratory complications of pediatric trauma. Respir Care Clin N Am. 2001;7(1):59–77.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hancock BJ, Wiseman NE. Tracheobronchial injuries in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1991;26(11):1316–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Grant WJ, Meyers RL, Jaffe RL, Johnson DG. Tracheobronchial injuries after blunt chest trauma in children – hidden pathology. J Pediatr Surg. 1998;33(11):1707–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Eichelberger MR, Randolph JG. Thoracic trauma in children. Surg Clin N Am. 1981;61(5):1181–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Golianu B, Hammer GB. Pain management for pediatric thoracic surgery. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2005;18:13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Nunn JF, Slavin G. Posterior intercostal nerve blocks for pain relief after cholecystectomy. Anatomical basis and efficacy. Br J Anaesth. 1980;52:253–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Gibson MP, Vetter T, Crow JP. Use of continuous retropleural bupivacaine in postoperative pain management for pediatric thoracotomy. J Pediatr Surg. 1999;34(1):199–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Krane EJ, Dalens BJ, Murat I, Murrell D. The safety of epidurals placed during general anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1998;23:433–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Tsui BC. Innovative approaches to neuraxial blockade in children: the introduction of epidural nerve root stimulation and ultrasound guidance for epidural catheter placement. Pain Res Manag. 2006;11(3):173–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ingelmo P, et al. The optimum initial pediatric epidural bolus: a comparison of four local anesthetic solutions. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007;17(12):1166–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Goodarzi M. Comparison of epidural morphine, hydromorphone and fentanyl for postoperative pain control in children undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 1999;9(5):419–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Serlin S. Single-dose caudal epidural morphine in children: safe, effective, and easy. J Clin Anesth. 1991;3(5):386–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaChildren’s Hospital of Eastern OntarioOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations