Advertisement

Multi-level Conceptual Modeling: From a Formal Theory to a Well-Founded Language

  • Claudenir M. FonsecaEmail author
  • João Paulo A. Almeida
  • Giancarlo Guizzardi
  • Victorio A. Carvalho
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11157)

Abstract

Subject domains are often conceptualized with entities stratified into a rigid two-level structure: a level of classes and a level of individuals which instantiate these classes. Multi-level modeling extends the conventional two-level classification scheme by admitting classes that are also instances of other classes, a feature which is key in a number of subject domains. Despite the advances in multi-level modeling in the last decade, a number of requirements arising from representation needs in subject domains have not yet been addressed in current modeling approaches. In this paper, we tackle this issue by proposing an expressive multi-level conceptual modeling language (dubbed ML2). We follow a principled approach in the design of ML2, constructing its abstract syntax as to reflect a formal theory for multi-level modeling (termed MLT*). We show that ML2 enables the expression of a number of multi-level modeling scenarios that cannot be currently expressed in the existing multi-level modeling languages. A textual syntax for ML2 is provided with an implementation in Xtext.

Keywords

Multi-level modeling Conceptual modeling Modeling language 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is partially supported by CNPq (grants number 407235/2017-5, 312123/2017-5 and 312158/2015-7), CAPES (23038.028816/2016-41), FAPES (69382549) and FUB (OCEAN Project).

References

  1. 1.
    Almeida, J.P.A., Fonseca, C.M., Carvalho, V.A.: A comprehensive formal theory for multi-level conceptual modeling. In: Mayr, H.C., Guizzardi, G., Ma, H., Pastor, O. (eds.) ER 2017. LNCS, vol. 10650, pp. 280–294. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69904-2_23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atkinson, C., Gerbig, R.: Melanie: multi-level modeling and ontology engineering environment. Proceedings of the 2nd International Master Class on Model-Driven Engineering Modeling Wizards - MW 2012. ACM Press, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atkinson, C., Gerbig, R., Kühne, T.: Comparing multi-level modeling approaches. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Multi-level Modelling (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atkinson, C., Kühne, T.: Meta-level independent modeling. In: International Workshop “Model Engineering” (in Conjunction with ECOOP’2000), Cannes, France, p. 16 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brasileiro, F., Almeida, J.P.A., Carvalho, V.A., Guizzardi, G.: Expressive multi-level modeling for the semantic web. In: Groth, P., et al. (eds.) ISWC 2016. LNCS, vol. 9981, pp. 53–69. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46523-4_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brasileiro, F., et al.: Applying a multi-level modeling theory to assess taxonomic hierarchies in Wikidata. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference Companion on World Wide Web, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 975–980 (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cardelli, L.: Structural subtyping and the notion of powertype. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM Symposium of Principles of Programming Languages, pp. 70–79 (1988)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carvalho, V.A., Almeida, J.P.A.: Toward a well-founded theory for multi-level conceptual modeling. Softw. Syst. Model., 1–27 (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clark, T., Gonzalez-Perez, C., Henderson-Sellers, B.: Foundation for multi-level modelling. In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1286, pp. 43–52 (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ECMA: The JSON Data Interchange Format, 1st edn. (2013). http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/ECMA-404.pdf
  11. 11.
    Fonseca, C.M.: ML2: an expressive multi-level conceptual modeling language. Dissertation (master’s in informatics) - Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Foxvog, D.: Instances of instances modeled via higher-order classes, Foundational Aspects of Ontologies, (9–2005), pp. 46–54 (2005). http://www.uni-koblenz.de/fb4/publikationen/gelbereihe/RR-9-2005.pdf
  13. 13.
    Gonzalez-Perez, C., Henderson-Sellers, B.: A powertype-based metamodelling framework. Softw. Syst. Model. 5, 72–90 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guizzardi, G.: Ontological Foundations for Structural Conceptual Models, 1st edn., The Netherlands (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guizzardi, G., et al.: Towards an ontological analysis of powertypes. In: Proceedings of the Joint Ontology Workshops 2015, p. 1517 (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jackson, D.: Software Abstractions: Logic, Language and Analysis. MIT Press, Cambridge (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jarke, M., et al.: ConceptBase - a deductive object base for meta data management. J. Intell. Inf. Syst. 4(2), 167–192 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jeusfeld, M.A., Neumayr, B.: DeepTelos: multi-level modeling with most general instances. In: Comyn-Wattiau, I., Tanaka, K., Song, I.-Y., Yamamoto, S., Saeki, M. (eds.) ER 2016. LNCS, vol. 9974, pp. 198–211. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46397-1_15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Lara, J., Guerra, E.: Deep Meta-modelling with MetaDepth. In: Vitek, J. (ed.) TOOLS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6141, pp. 1–20. Springer, Heidelberg (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-13953-6_1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mayr, E.: The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. The Belknap Press, Cambridge (1982)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mylopoulos, J.: Conceptual modeling and Telos. In: Loucopoulos, P., Zicari, R. (eds.) Conceptual Modelling, Databases, and CASE: an Integrated View of Information System Development, pp. 49–68. Wiley, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Neumayr, B., Grun, K., Schrefl, M.: Multi-level domain modeling with m-objects and m-relationships. In: 6th Asia-Pacific Conference on Conceptual Modelling, vol. 96, pp. 107–116 (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Neumayr, B., Jeusfeld, M.A., Schrefl, M., Schütz, C.: Dual deep instantiation and its ConceptBase implementation. In: Jarke, M., et al. (eds.) CAiSE 2014. LNCS, vol. 8484, pp. 503–517. Springer, Cham (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07881-6_34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Odell, J.: Power types. J. Object-Oriented Program. 7(2), 8–12 (1994)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W3C: OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview (2009). http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-owl2-overview-20091027/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudenir M. Fonseca
    • 1
    Email author
  • João Paulo A. Almeida
    • 2
  • Giancarlo Guizzardi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Victorio A. Carvalho
    • 3
  1. 1.Free University of Bozen-BolzanoBolzanoItaly
  2. 2.Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES)VitóriaBrazil
  3. 3.Federal Institute of Espírito Santo (IFES)ColatinaBrazil

Personalised recommendations