Reification and Truthmaking Patterns

  • Nicola GuarinoEmail author
  • Tiago Prince Sales
  • Giancarlo Guizzardi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11157)


Reification is a standard technique in conceptual modeling, which consists of including in the domain of discourse entities that may otherwise be hidden or implicit. However, deciding what should be reified is not always easy. Recent work on formal ontology offers us a simple answer: put in the domain of discourse those entities that are responsible for the (alleged) truth of our propositions. These are called truthmakers. Re-visiting previous work, we propose in this paper a systematic analysis of truthmaking patterns for properties and relations based on the ontological nature of their truthmakers. Truthmaking patterns will be presented as generalization of reification patterns, accounting for the fact that, in some cases, we do not reify a property or a relationship directly, but we rather reify its truthmakers.


Ontology-driven conceptual modeling Reification 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicola Guarino
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tiago Prince Sales
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giancarlo Guizzardi
    • 3
  1. 1.ISTC-CNR Laboratory for Applied OntologyTrentoItaly
  2. 2.University of TrentoTrentoItaly
  3. 3.Free University of Bozen-BolzanoBolzanoItaly

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