Advertisement

Can Modern Pan-Africanism Help Us to Visualise a Future Without Whiteness?

  • Ornette D. Clennon
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, Ornette D. Clennon examines the possibilities of grassroots education as being a site for a Black Radicalism (as envisioned by Kehinde Andrews and Cedric J. Robinson) that operates outside of the confines of whiteness. Clennon also explores the potentially challenging relationship between Black Radicalism, (as a vehicle for social justice) and the state and how these challenges can be possibly overcome via Higher Education and the valuing of the ‘Black Academic’.

Keywords

Black Radicalism Grassroots education Higher education Black academic 

Works Cited

  1. Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. (2002). The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change and Economic Growth. Cambdrige: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Available at https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/64071/riseofeuropeatla00acem.pdf?sequence=1.
  2. Allain, J. M. (2014). Infanticide as Slave Resistance: Evidence from Barbados, Jamaica, and Saint-Domingue. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 6(4). Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=893.
  3. Allen, T. W. (2012). The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  4. Althusser, L. (1970). Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. Retrieved August 19, 2013, from Marxists.org. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/althusser/1970/ideology.htm.
  5. Andrews, K. (2013). Resisting Racism: Race, Inequality and the Black Supplementary School Movement. London: Institute of Education Press.Google Scholar
  6. Andrews, K. (2018). Back to Black Retelling Black Radicalism for the 21st Century. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  7. BBC News. (2015, January 5). Guns in the US: The Statistics Behind the Violence. Retrieved from BBC News. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-34996604.
  8. Bell, D., & Clennon, O. D. (2016, May 4). Black Study, Black Struggle. Retrieved from Critical Race and Ethnicity Research Cluster. https://critracemmu.wordpress.com/2016/05/04/black-study-black-struggle/.
  9. Berliner, W. (2013, July 23). Where Are All the Black Professors? Retrieved from The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/education/2013/jul/23/teaching-students-higher-education-networks.
  10. Bhambra, G. K. (2007). Rethinking Modernity: Postcolonialism and the Sociological Imagination. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhambra, G. K. (2010). Historical Sociology, International Relations, and Connected Histories. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 23(1), 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bloom, D. (2016, May 22). Nigel Farage-Backed Brexit Group Targeted National Front Supporters with Adverts on Facebook. Retrieved from Mirror. https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/nigel-farage-backed-brexit-group-8025489.
  13. Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. J. (1992). An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  14. Channel4 News. (2015, March 12). Farage: Should Ukip Scrap Race Discrimination Laws? Retrieved from Channel4 News. https://www.channel4.com/news/nigel-farage-race-discrimination-laws-scrapped.
  15. Choudry, A. (2015). Learning Activism: The Intellectual Life of Contemporary Social Movements. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  16. Clennon, O. D. (2015). Urban Dialectics, the Market and Youth Engagement: The ‘Black’ Face of Eurocentrism. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Clennon, O. D. (2016a). The Black Face of Eurocentrism: Uncovering Globalisation. In O. D. Clennon (Ed.), International Perspectives of Multiculturalism: The Ethical Challenges (pp. 91–128). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. Clennon, O. D. (2016b). The Ethical Implications of Ideological and Political Multiculturalism in the UK. In O. Clennon (Ed.), International Perspectives of Multiculturalism: The Ethical Challenges (pp. 25–69). New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  19. Clennon, O. D. (2016c, April 29). Black Lawyers Matter, West Indian Sports and Social Club, Westwood Street, Moss Side, 5.5.16 UPDATED. Retrieved from Critical Race and Ethnicity Research Cluster. https://critracemmu.wordpress.com/2016/04/29/black-lawyers-matter-west-indian-sports-and-social-club-westwood-street-moss-side-m14-4sw-5-5-16/.
  20. Clennon, O. D. (2016d, August 5). Project Mali, Manchester. Retrieved from Critical Race and Ethnicity Research Cluster, Manchester Metropolitan University. https://critracemmu.wordpress.com/project-mali-manchester/.
  21. Clennon, O. D. (2017). The Polemics of C.L.R. James and Contemporary Black Activism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Connolly, K. (2016, June 19). Frauke Petry: The Acceptable Face of Germany’s New Right? Retrieved from The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/19/frauke-petry-acceptable-face-of-germany-new-right-interview?CMP=share_btn_tw.
  23. Cornell, S., & Ruben, E. M. (2015, September 30). The Slave-State Origins of Modern Gun Rights. Retrieved from The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/09/the-origins-of-public-carry-jurisprudence-in-the-slave-south/407809/.
  24. Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum (1). Available at http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclf/vol1989/iss1/8.
  25. Dada, M., Carney, D. L., & Guerra, L. (2014). The Health and Wellbeing of Black and Minority Ethnic Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men. London: Public Health England. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/498039/HealthWellBeingOfBlackMinorityEthnicMenWhoHaveSexWithMenfinal05122014.pdf.
  26. Earl, C. (2014). Education and Social Change: A Theoretical Approach. In O. Clennon (Ed.), Alternative Education and Community Development: Making Education a Priority (pp. 37–52). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  27. ECHR. (1948, December 10). European Convention on Human Rights. Retrieved from European Court of Human Rights. https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf.
  28. Esom, K., Nibogora, B., & Armstrong, R. (Eds.). (2015). Reflections on Sexuality and Equality in Africa Vol. 1. Johannesburg, SA: African Men for Sexual Health and Rights [AMSHeR]. Available at https://www.amsher.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Refelctions-on-Sexuality-and-Equlity-In-Africa-Volume1.pdf.
  29. Fanon, F. (1963). The Wretched of the Earth (C. Farrington, Trans.) New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fanon, F. (1967). Towards the African Revolution. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  31. Fanon, F. (1986 [1952]). Black Skin, White Masks. (C. L. Markmann, Trans.) London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  32. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. (A. Sheridan, Trans.) New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  33. Freire, P. (1973). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury Press.Google Scholar
  34. Gilroy, P. (1993). The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gupta, A. (2008, December 17). This Alien Legacy the Origins of “Sodomy” Laws in British Colonialism. Retrieved from Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/report/2008/12/17/alien-legacy/origins-sodomy-laws-british-colonialism.
  36. Henley, J., Bengtsson, H., & Barr, C. (2016, May 25). Across Europe, Distrust of Mainstream Political Parties Is on the Rise. Retrieved from The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/25/across-europe-distrust-of-mainstream-political-parties-is-on-the-rise.
  37. hooks, b., & West, C. (1999). Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life. New York: South End Press.Google Scholar
  38. How Africa. (2015). An Open Letter to “African Intellectuals”. Retrieved from How Africa. https://howafrica.com/an-open-letter-to-african-intellectuals/.
  39. Jacobson, L. (2016, June 18). Trump Claim That Muslims Don’t Assimilate Is ‘False,’ PolitiFact Finds. Retrieved from NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/orlando-nightclub-massacre/trump-claim-muslims-don-t-assimilate-false-politifact-finds-n594686.
  40. Martin-Baró, I. (1994). Writings for a Liberation Psychology. New York: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Marx, K. (1975 [1870]). Marx to Sigfrid Meyer and August Vogt. In K. Marx, & F. Engels, Selected Correspondence (R. Kuhn, Trans., pp. 220–224). Moscow: Progress Publishers. Available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1870/letters/70_04_09.htm (version used).
  42. Matos, K. (2015, June 24). The Politics of Hate. Retrieved from The Hill. http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/politics/245867-the-politics-of-hate.
  43. Mbiti, J. S. (1970). African Religions and Philosophy. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  44. McGee, S. (2010). Chasing Goldman Sachs. New York: Crown Publishing.Google Scholar
  45. Mkasi, L. P. (2016). African Same-Sexualities and Indigenous Knowledge: Creating a Space for Dialogue Within Patriarchy. Verbum et Ecclesia, 37(2), http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/vee/v37n2/03.pdf.
  46. Mills, C. W. (1997). The Racial Contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Moreno, C. (2018, April 27). This Game-Changing Pill Protects Against HIV. It Isn’t Reaching the Men Who Need It Most. Retrieved from Huffington Post US. https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/prep-black-gay-community_us_5ace78f3e4b08337adc90f0c.
  48. Nora, P. (1996). General Introduction: Between Memory and History. In L. D. Krtizmann (Ed.), Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past, Vol. 1: Conflict and Divisions (A. Goldhammer, Trans., pp. 1–20). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Patterson, O. (1982). Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Pirenne, H. (1948). Medieval Cities, Their Origins and the Revival of Trade. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Powell, E. (2007 [1968], November 6). The Rivers of Blood Speech. Retrieved July 23, 2013, from The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/3643823/Enoch-Powells-Rivers-of-Blood-speech.html.
  52. Quijano, A. (2000). Coloniality of Power and Eurocentrism in Latin America. International Sociology, 15(2), 215–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reuters. (2016, May 25). Justice Department Seeks Death Penalty for Charleston Shooter Dylann Roof. Retrieved from The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/may/24/charleston-church-shooting-dylann-roof-death-penalty-south-carolina.
  54. Robinson, C. J. (1983). Black Marxism: The Making of Black Radical Tradition. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  55. Rude, G. (1964). The Crowd in History. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. Shilliam, R. (2015). The Black Pacific: Anti-Colonial Struggles and Oceanic Connections. London: Bloomsbury. Available here https://www.bloomsburycollections.com/book/the-black-pacific-anti-colonial-struggles-and-oceanic-connections/introduction.
  57. Slawson, N. (2016, June 18). Jo Cox Murder Accused Gives Name as ‘Death to Traitors, Freedom for Britain’. Retrieved from The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/jun/18/jo-cox-murder-suspect-thomas-mair-told-police-he-was-political-activist.
  58. Smith, D., Luscombe, R., Pilkington, E., & Gumbel, A. (2016, June 18). How the Orlando Shooting Unfolded: ‘He Came in with the Intent of Evil’. Retrieved from The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/18/orlando-nightlcub-shooting-pulse-florida-attack-timeline.
  59. Steinmetz, K. (2015, August 17). Why Transgender People Are Being Murdered at a Historic Rate. Retrieved from Time. http://time.com/3999348/transgender-murders-2015/.
  60. Stevens, G., Bell, D., Sonn, C., Canham, H., & Clennon, O. D. (2017). Transnational Perspectives on Black Subjectivity. South African Journal of Psychology, 47(4), 459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tamale, S. (Ed.). (2011). African Sexualities: A Reader. Cape Town, Dakar, Nairobi, Oxford: Pambazuka Press.Google Scholar
  62. Thompson, E. P. (1966). The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  63. van Klinken, A. (2017). Sexual Orientation, (Anti-)Discrimination and Human Rights in a ‘Christian Nation’: The Politicization of Homosexuality in Zambia. Critical African Studies, 9(1), 9–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wallerstein, I. (2003). Historical Capitalism with Capitalist Civilization (11th ed.). London, New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  65. Wright, O. (2016, June 19). Eu Referendum: Nigel Farage’s Anti-Migrant Poster like 1930s Fascist Propaganda, Says George Osborne. Retrieved from The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/eu-referendum-poster-nigel-farage-polls-michael-gove-a7089946.html.
  66. Zeleza, P. T. (2005). Rewriting the African Diaspora: Beyond the Black Atlantic. African Affairs, 104(414), 35–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Bibliography

  1. Clennon, O. D. (2016). EU Referendum: Will We Stay or Will We Go? PAC45 Foundation [website] June 21, 2016. Available http://www.pac45foundation.com/blog/eu-referendum-will-we-stay-or-will-we-go/.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ornette D. Clennon
    • 1
  1. 1.Critical Race and Ethnicity Research Cluster, Community Wellbeing Research CentreManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations