Advertisement

Why Hospitals Need Service Design

Challenges and Methods for Successful Implementation of Change in Hospitals
  • Kristine Rise FryEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Healthcare is in need of change because of an ongoing growing and ageing population. Meanwhile, increasing attention has been paid to the potential value of service design tools within healthcare. Service design is the activity of planning and implementing change to improve the quality of a service. To manage change, it is important to identify challenges for change in the service that needs improving. A large number of change initiatives fail due to unfocused and insecure management, and there is a need for a new way of implementing change. Service design is a user-centric approach that includes service providers, end-users and stakeholders in the design process. This chapter gives an overview of pressures for change and identifies key barriers hospitals face when managing change. An overview of relevant methods and strategies from service design is given before they are exemplified through a case study of a service design project at an Emergency Department. The chapter then discusses how service design methods can be used in overcoming challenges in hospitals and effectively implement change. The chapter concludes that co-creation and multidisciplinary teams are essential in the context of hospital change management. Further, the chapter concludes that hospitals would benefit from using a user-centred, holistic approach that considers patient experience in their delivery of care.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully thanks NTNU, Institute of Design, for guidance and the opportunity to write this study. The author also thanks Linn Harbo Dahle for co-facilitating the case study at the Emergency Department and Marikken Høiseth for guidance.

References

  1. Bate, P., & Robert, G. (2006). Experience-based design: From redesigning the system around the patient to co-designing services with the patient. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 15(5), 307–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Diana, C., Pacenti, E., & Tassi, R. (2012). Visualtiles: Communication tools for (service) design. In S. Clatworthy, J. V. Nisula & S. Holmlid (Eds.), Conference Proceedings ServDes. 2009; DeThinking Service; ReThinking Design (pp. 65–76); Oslo, Norway, 24–26 November 2009, No. 059. Linköping University Electronic Press. Google Scholar
  3. Dock, S. (1917). The relation of the nurse to the doctor and the doctor to the nurse. The American Journal of Nursing, 17(5), 394–396.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3405170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Donetto, S., Pierri, P., Tsianakas, V., & Robert, G. (2015). Experience-based co-design and healthcare improvement: Realizing participatory design in the public sector. The Design Journal, 18(2), 227–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Doyle, C., Lennox, L., & Bell, D. (2013). A systematic review of evidence on the links between patient experience and clinical safety and effectiveness. BMJ Open, 3(1), e001570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edmondson, A. C. (2004). Learning from failure in health care: Frequent opportunities, pervasive barriers. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13(Suppl 2), ii3–ii9.Google Scholar
  7. Epstein, R. M., & Street, R. L. (2011). The values and value of patient-centered care. The Annals of Family Medicine, 9(2), 100–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B., & Schultz, A. (2005). Transforming health care from the inside out: Advancing evidence-based practice in the 21st century. Journal of Professional Nursing, 21(6), 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freire, K., & Sangiorgi, D. (2012, September). Service design and healthcare innovation: From consumption to co-production and co-creation. In S. Holmlid, J. V. Nisula & S. Clatworthy (Eds.), Conference Proceedings; ServDes. 2010; Exchanging Knowledge (pp. 39–49); Linköping, Sweden; 1–3 December 2010, No. 060. Linköping University Electronic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Grol, R., & Grimshaw, J. (2003). From best evidence to best practice: Effective implementation of change in patients’ care. The Lancet, 362(9391), 1225–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grol, R., & Grol, R. (2013). Improving patient care. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell/BMJ Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Henderson, D., Dempsey, C., & Appleby, D. (2004). A case study of successful patient flow methods: St. John’s Hospital. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 20(4), 25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jones, P. (2013). Design for care (1st ed.). Brooklyn: Rosenfeld Media.Google Scholar
  14. Kimbell, L. (2011). Designing for service as one way of designing services. International Journal of Design, 5(2), 41–52. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from http://www.ijdesign.org/index.php/IJDesign/article/view/938/345
  15. Mazzocato, P., Holden, R. J., Brommels, M., Aronsson, H., Bäckman, U., Elg, M., et al. (2012). How does lean work in emergency care? A case study of a lean-inspired intervention at the Astrid Lindgren Children’s hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. BMC Health Services Research, 12(1), 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McKee, M., & Healy, J. (2002). Hospitals in a changing Europe. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Nilsen, E. R., Dugstad, J., Eide, H., Gullslett, M. K., & Eide, T. (2016). Exploring resistance to implementation of welfare technology in municipal healthcare services: A longitudinal case study. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1), 657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Norman, D. (2016). Future design: When you come to a fork in a road, take it! Retrieved January 30, 2018, from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/future-design-when-you-come-fork-road-take-don-norman/
  19. Parand, A., Dopson, S., Renz, A., & Vincent, C. (2014). The role of hospital managers in quality and patient safety: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 4(9), e005055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pexton, C. (2016). How to overcome barriers to change in the healthcare system. Retrieved November 14, 2016, from https://www.isixsigma.com/implementation/change-management-implementation/overcoming-barriers-change-healthcare-system/
  21. Polaine, A., Løvlie, L., Reason, B., & Thackara, J. (2013). Service design: From insight to implementation. Brooklyn: Rosenfeld Media.Google Scholar
  22. Radnor, Z. J., Holweg, M., & Waring, J. (2012). Lean in healthcare: The unfilled promise? Social Science & Medicine, 74(3), 364–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Robinson, J. H., Callister, L. C., Berry, J. A., & Dearing, K. A. (2008). Patient-centered care and adherence: Definitions and applications to improve outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 20(12), 600–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Solli, I. (2013). Designet bort helsekøen. Retrieved November 16, 2016, from http://www.norskdesign.no/nyheter/designetbort-helsekoeen-article25351-8849.html
  25. Stein, L., Watts, D., & Howell, T. (1990). The doctor–nurse game revisited. New England Journal of Medicine, 322(8), 546–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stickdorn, M., & Schneider, J. (2016). This is service design thinking (1st ed.). Amsterdam: BIS.Google Scholar
  27. Vennik, F., van de Bovenkamp, H., Putters, K., & Grit, K. (2015). Co-production in healthcare: Rhetoric and practice. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 82(1), 150–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wilson, M., Siegel, B., & Williams, M. (2005). Perfecting patient flow. Washington, DC: National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations