Degenerative, Metabolic and Neurogenic Joint Diseases

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


Arthrosis deformans (osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disorder) is the most common joint disease and is symptomatic mainly between 40 and 60 years of age. The secondary arthrosis stems from the inferiority of the cartilage tissue, unequal mechanical loading, trauma, inflammation or metabolic disorders. At the beginning, pathogenetically, are the loss of elasticity, changes of the cartilage basic substance (collagen and proteoglycans) and the decrease of chondrocytes. Above all, the spine (cervical and lumbar), knees, hips, hands and feet are above all affected. First radiological changes are loss of cartilage height, cleft in the joint cartilage and subchondral sclerosis. Osteophytes, solitary “scree cysts” and inflammatory reactions (“secondary erosive arthritis”) occur with advanced abrasion.


Uric acid Diabetic neuropathy Uric acid level Bone marrow oedema Joint cartilage 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

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