Bone Metastases: Incidence and Development

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


Metastasis is a fundamental problem in clinical oncology. Once established in the skeleton or elsewhere, the malignancy is systemic and can no longer be cured by surgery alone. This is the reason that tumours are regarded as systemic from the moment osseous or other metastases are detected. Some even consider all malignant tumours as systemic from the moment they are established and certainly as soon as they have attained a clinically detectable size.


Bone turnover marker Metastatic spread Skeletal metastasis Metastatic bone disease Bone marrow microenvironment 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

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