Tumour-Induced Hypercalcaemia (TIH)

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


Hypercalcaemia is found in about 1% of all hospitalised patients and caused by malignancy in 46% of all cases and by pHPT in 35%. In the remaining 19%, other conditions are responsible. These include sarcoidosis, immobilisation and medications such as thiazides or active metabolites of vitamin D. Patients with mild hypercalcaemia have no symptoms. The term “hypercalcaemic syndrome” refers to a constellation of symptoms independent of the aetiology including renal, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric changes.


Multiple myeloma Serum calcium Local side effect Humoral hypercalcaemia Longe infusion time 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations