Rheumatology and Immunology

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


Skeletal damage is a hallmark of many chronic rheumatic diseases such as rheumatic arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is known as inflammation-induced bone loss in the rheumatic diseases. Vitamin D exercises a regulatory function in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, and it has been demonstrated that the net effect of vitamin D is an enhancement of innate immunity. A role has been ascribed to vitamin D in autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.


Systemic lupus erythematosus Bone loss Ankylosing spondylitis Rheumatic disorder Rheumatic arthritis 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

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