Assessment of Secondary Osteoporosis

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


The first step is the separation of “primary” or “idiopathic” from the “secondary” osteoporoses which have an underlying cause, i.e. a specific disease or disorder. “Primary” osteoporosis refers mainly to postmenopausal and age-related involutional osteoporoses, in spite of the fact that a number of factors contributing to their pathogenesis are already known. Secondary osteoporoses are responsible for about 20% of all osteoporotic fractures. Secondary causes of osteoporosis, i.e. as co-morbidities, are also frequent in older patients who already have primary involutional osteoporosis. Physicians should consider the possible causes of secondary osteoporosis particularly when patients present as follows with.


General practice Sport medicine Bone density Family medicine Osteoporotic fracture 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

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