Modelling and Remodelling of Bone

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


Bone is a dynamic organ, highly vascularised and very active metabolically. As the bones are not completely developed at birth, they continue to be formed slowly out of cartilage or connective tissue, which are converted into the hard, lamellar components of the bone. Growth of the bones (modelling) comes to an end at puberty with ossification of the “growth plates”. Modelling is of particular interest as the bone is much more capable of reacting to external loads during growth than at any other time. About 90% of adult bone is formed by the end of adolescence, and subsequent gains during adulthood are very small.


Osteoclast progenitor Trabecular network Osteocytic lacuna Subsequent gain Bone remodel unit 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

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