Vitamin D and Other Useful Vitamins

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


The structure of vitamin D was identified in 1900. In the following decades till the end of the century, numerous studies elucidated its metabolism and its effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and its correlation to skeletal mineral metabolism. Indeed, some authors have claimed that the bone is an “intracrine organ” for vitamin D metabolism, based on its direct effects on the bone cells and on the fact that the bone cells themselves can convert 25D into 1,25D by means of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), thereby participating in the autocrine and paracrine loops of vitamin D metabolism.


Secondary hyperparathyroidism Calcium oxalate International unit Calcium oxalate stone Nursing home population 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

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