3D Imaging for Craniofacial Anomalies

  • Kevin S. SmithEmail author
  • Myles Davidson


Craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) can arise from any type of abnormal growth or deformity of the structures of the craniofacial skeleton. The variations of these anomalies arise from a number of different factors, including genetic factors, environmental factors, and folic acid deficiencies, and can range from very mild to severe, requiring surgery. Some of the most common types of craniofacial anomalies include cleft lip/cleft palate, craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia, vascular malformations, hemangioma, and deformational or positional plagiocephaly. Three-dimensional imaging of these CFAs continues to evolve with advances in technology. While cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is often considered the workhorse for imaging of CFAs, it is not without its own limitations. Indications for alternative or adjunctive imaging modalities include soft tissue detail, inflammatory processes, and temporomandibular joint morphology. This chapter provides a review of three-dimensional imaging techniques most commonly used for the diagnosis and management of craniofacial anomalies.


Computed tomography Structured light stereophotogrammetry Laser Facial morphometry MRI Cine MRI Angiography Craniofacial anomaly 3D imaging 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryUniversity of Oklahoma Health Science CenterOklahoma CityUSA

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