Ethical Codes and Declarations
From Hippocrates and Chinese and Islamic healers to modern times, ethical codes and declarations are an essential component of medical education and conduct. Even after many centuries, the early documents on medical ethics are outstanding examples of clear, precise, and timeless formulations. In recent decades, dramatic changes to the practice of medicine have led to an enormous increase in the volume of ethical declarations and documents. Nevertheless, these documents lag behind the rapid new developments in medical research and practice and cannot offer advice in situations in which some ethical costs are inevitable and in which a compromise has to be made.
KeywordsHippocratic oath Sun Simiao Ali Rahawi Ethical codes
- 1.Fu-Chang Tsai D. Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics. J Med Ethics. 1999;25:315–21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC479240/pdf/jmedeth00005-0025.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caporale C, Pavone IR. International biolaw and shared ethical principles: the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis; 2017. isbn:9781472483980.Google Scholar
Selected Codes of Medical Ethics
- Trinidad and Tobago: http://www.mbtt.org/CodeOfEthics_Responsibilities_to_profession.htm
- World Medical Association: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-international-code-of-medical-ethics/