Advertisement

Ethical Codes and Declarations

  • Matjaž Zwitter
Chapter

Abstract

From Hippocrates and Chinese and Islamic healers to modern times, ethical codes and declarations are an essential component of medical education and conduct. Even after many centuries, the early documents on medical ethics are outstanding examples of clear, precise, and timeless formulations. In recent decades, dramatic changes to the practice of medicine have led to an enormous increase in the volume of ethical declarations and documents. Nevertheless, these documents lag behind the rapid new developments in medical research and practice and cannot offer advice in situations in which some ethical costs are inevitable and in which a compromise has to be made.

Keywords

Hippocratic oath Sun Simiao Ali Rahawi Ethical codes 

References

  1. 1.
    Fu-Chang Tsai D. Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics. J Med Ethics. 1999;25:315–21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC479240/pdf/jmedeth00005-0025.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.

Suggested Reading

  1. Askitopoulou H, Vgontzas AN. The relevance of the Hippocratic Oath to the ethical and moral values of contemporary medicine. Part I: The Hippocratic Oath from antiquity to modern times. Eur Spine J. 2018;27:1481–90.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5348-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Askitopoulou H, Vgontzas AN. The relevance of the Hippocratic Oath to the ethical and moral values of contemporary medicine. Part II: Interpretation of the Hippocratic Oath-today’s perspective. Eur Spine J. 2018;27:1491–500.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-018-5615-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Caporale C, Pavone IR. International biolaw and shared ethical principles: the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis; 2017. isbn:9781472483980.Google Scholar
  4. Malik AY, Foster C. The revised declaration of Helsinki: cosmetic or real change? J R Soc Med. 2016;109:184–9.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0141076816643332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Selected Codes of Medical Ethics

  1. Europe: Patuzzo S, Pulice E. Towards a European code of medical ethics: ethical and legal issues. J Med Ethics. 2017;43:41–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matjaž Zwitter
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia
  2. 2.Institute of OncologyLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations