Advertisement

From Data to Service Intelligence: Exploring Public Safety as a Service

  • Monica DrăgoiceaEmail author
  • Nabil Georges Badr
  • João Falcão e Cunha
  • Virginia Ecaterina Oltean
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 331)

Abstract

This paper describes an exploration process aligned with the core domain of Service Science inside a critical sector of Society, aiming at developing City in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive way. The paper focuses on defining the Public Safety as a Service concept in an inclusive and responsible value co-creation urban design vision for liveable cities. It explains how service intelligence can act on immaterial artefacts to transform data into information to generate value co-creation processes whose outcomes are applied to the evolution of knowledge in public safety services. Public safety is approached within a service ecosystem perspective, following the global targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction as an application perspective. Managerial implication are approached from two perspectives: establishment of governance principles with the help of Elinor Ostrom’s works, and a Viable Systems Approach on the response to disasters operating rules.

Keywords

Service ecosystems Service intelligence Liveable cities Public safety Sustainable institutions Viable Systems Approach 

References

  1. 1.
    UN: World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, ST/ESA/SER.A/366 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    IBM: Making Sense of a Sensored World. IBM Smarter Planet. https://www.ibm.com/
  3. 3.
    Cisco: Smart+connected Communities. Changing a City, a Country, the World. Cisco White paper. https://www.cisco.com/
  4. 4.
    Siemens: Siemens City Cockpit White paper. City Cockpit in Singapore: Collective Intelligence - Real Time Government. Siemens. https://www.siemens.com/
  5. 5.
    Microsoft: Microsoft Citynext White paper. Accelerating the Digital Transformation of Smart Cities and Smart Communities. Microsoft. https://enterprise.microsoft.com/
  6. 6.
    Greenfield, A.: Against the Smart City (the City is Here for You to Use, Part i). Amazon Digital Services LLC, Kindle edn, Do Projects, 1.3 edn (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    UrbanScale: Design for Networked Cities and Citizens. UrbanScale. http://urbanscale.org/
  8. 8.
    LiveableCities: Transforming the Engineering of Cities for Global and Societal Wellbeing. Liveable Cities. http://liveablecities.org.uk/
  9. 9.
    UN: Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform. Goal 11: Make Cities Inclusive, Safe, Resilient and Sustainable. United Nations (2017). http://www.un.org/
  10. 10.
    Ng, I.C., Wakenshaw, S.Y.: The internet-of-things: review and research directions. Int. J. Res. Mark. 34(1), 3–21 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., Palaniswami, M.: Internet of things (IoT): a vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 29(7), 1645–1660 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sundmaeker, H., Guillemin, P., Friess, P., Woelfflé, S.: Vision and challenges for realising the Internet of Things. Clust. Eur. Res. Proj. Internet Things Eur. Comm. 3(3), 34–36 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Soriano, J., et al.: Internet of services. In: Bertin, E., Crespi, N., Magedanz, T. (eds.) Evolution of Telecommunication Services. LNCS, vol. 7768, pp. 283–325. Springer, Heidelberg (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41569-2_14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moßgraber, J., et al.: The sensor to decision chain in crisis management. In: Boersma, K., Tomaszewski, B. (eds.) CoRe Paper - Universal Design of ICT in Emergency Management, Proceedings of the 15th ISCRAM Conference - Rochester, NY, USA, May 2018 (2018)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mims, C.: The Internet of Things isn’t things, it’s services. Wall Str. J. (2016). https://www.wsj.com/
  16. 16.
    Estevez, P.A.: CIS in the next decade. IEEE Comput. Intell. Soc. (2016). http://cis.ieee.org/
  17. 17.
    Leather, A.: Internet of Things in public safety. Frost & Sullivan Webcasts (2015). https://ww2.frost.com/
  18. 18.
    Sims, K.: Top public safety and security tech trends for 2017. Hexagon Safety & Infrastructure (2017). www.hexagonsafetyinfrastructure.com/
  19. 19.
    Tiburon: PSaaS: The Next Evolution of Public Safety and Security is Here. Tiburon. http://www.gradicom.com/
  20. 20.
    Concepts To Operations: Public Safety as a Service (PSaaS). Concepts to Operations. http://www.concepts2ops.com/psaas/
  21. 21.
    The Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda - Transition Towards Sustainable and Liveable Urban Futures. JPI Urban Europe (2015). http://jpi-urbaneurope.eu/
  22. 22.
    Lim, C., Kim, M.J., Kim, K.H., Kim, K.J., Maglio, P.P.: Using data to advance service: managerial issues and theoretical implications from action research. J. Serv. Theory Pract. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-08-2016-0141
  23. 23.
    Spohrer, J.C., Kwan, S.K., Demirkan, H.: Service science: on reflection. In: Cinquini, L., Minin, A.D., Varaldo, R. (eds.) New Business Models and Value Creation: A Service Science Perspective, pp. 7–24. Springer, Milano (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-88-470-2838-8_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Macbeth, S., Pitt, J.V.: Self-organising management of user-generated data and knowledge. Knowl. Eng. Rev. 30(3), 237–264 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Osborne, S.P., Radnor, Z., Strokosch, K.: Co-production and the co-creation of value in public services: a suitable case for treatment? Publ. Manag. Rev. 18(5), 639–653 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tokoro, N.: The Smart City and the Co-creation of Value: A Source of New Competitiveness in a Low-Carbon Society. Springer, Tokyo (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55846-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Magno, F., Cassia, F.: Public administrators’ engagement in services co-creation: factors that foster and hinder organisational learning about citizens. Total Qual. Manag. Bus. Excell. 26(11–12), 1161–1172 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rytilahti, P., Miettinen, S., Vuontisjärvi, H.-R.: The theoretical landscape of service design. In: Marcus, A. (ed.) DUXU 2015. LNCS, vol. 9186, pp. 86–97. Springer, Cham (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20886-2_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    UN: Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. In: United Nations, Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, Sendai, Japan, 18–20 March 2015Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    UNISDR: UNISDR annual report 2016. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) (2017). https://www.unisdr.org/
  31. 31.
    UN: Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005–2015. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (2005). https://www.unisdr.org/we/coordinate/hfa
  32. 32.
    UN: Chart of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. United Nations (2015). https://www.unisdr.org/
  33. 33.
    Norris, A., Gonzalez, J., Martinez, S., Parry, D.: Disaster e-Health framework for community resilience. In: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2018, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), pp. 35–44 (2018)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grasso, N., Lingua, A.M., Musci, M.A., Noardo, F., Piras, M.: An INSPIRE-compliant open-source GIS for fire-fighting management. Nat. Hazards 90(2), 623–637 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Navas, S.R., Miyazaki, K.: Exploring “Big Data” applications for disaster management: a scientific keyword word co-occurrence network analysis. JAIST Repository, Japan Society for Research Policy and Innovation Management (2016). https://dspace.jaist.ac.jp/
  36. 36.
    Heikkurinen, M., Schiffers, M., Kranzlmüller, D.: Environmental computing 1.0: the dawn of a concept. In: International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2015, PoS(ISGC2015)030. Academia Sinica, Taipei (2015)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grasso, V., Singh, A., Pathak, J.: Early warning systems: state-of-art analysis and future directions. In: United Nations Environment Programme, Division of Early Warning and Assessment (2012). http://www.unep.org
  38. 38.
    Roles of local government - Public Safety. Michigan Townships Association. https://www.michigantownships.org/publicsafety.asp
  39. 39.
    Berrahal, S., Boudriga, N., Bagula, A.: Cooperative sensor-clouds for public safety services in infrastructure-less areas. In: 2016 22nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC), pp. 222–229. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Raza, A.: LTE network strategy for smart city public safety. In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Innovative Business Practices for the Transformation of Societies (EmergiTech), pp. 34–37. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Manzalini, A., Crespi, N.: An edge operating system enabling anything-as-a-service. IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(3), 62–67 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Safety as a Service. http://www.safetyasaservice.com
  43. 43.
    UN: Americas to Agree on Sendai Framework Action Plan. United Nations (2017). https://www.unisdr.org/archive/52207
  44. 44.
    Public Safety Canada. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/
  45. 45.
    UN: National framework in order to reduce earthquakes by multi-stakeholder participation in Turkey: National earthquake strategy and action plan of Turkey (UDSEP-2023). United Nations (2013). https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/50178
  46. 46.
    Vargo, S.L., Lusch, R.F.: Institutions and axioms: an extension and update of service-dominant logic. J. Acad. Mark. Sci. 44(1), 5–23 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rafati, L.: Capability-actor-resource-service: a conceptual modelling approach for value-driven strategic sourcing. Ph.D. thesis, Ghent University, Belgium (2018)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pels, J., Barile, S., Saviano, M., Polese, F., Carrubbo, L.: The contribution of VSA and SDL perspectives to strategic thinking in emerging economies. Manag. Serv. Qual. 24(6), 565–591 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vargo, S.L., Akaka, M.A.: Value cocreation and service systems (re)formation: a service ecosystems view. Serv. Sci. 4(3), 207–217 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lim, C., Kim, K.H., Kim, M.J., Heo, J.Y., Kim, K.J., Maglio, P.P.: From data to value: a nine-factor framework for data-based value creation in information-intensive services. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 39, 121–135 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lim, C.H., Kim, K.J.: Information service blueprint: a service blueprinting framework for information-intensive services. Serv. Sci. 6(4), 296–312 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Akaka, M.A., Vargo, S.L.: Technology as an operant resource in service (eco)systems. Inf. Syst. e-Bus. Manag. 12(3), 367–384 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vargo, S.L., Akaka, M.A., Vaughan, C.M.: Conceptualizing value: a service-ecosystem view. J. Creat. Value 3(2), 117–124 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Toots, M., et al.: A framework for data-driven public service co-production. In: Janssen, M., et al. (eds.) EGOV 2017. LNCS, vol. 10428, pp. 264–275. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64677-0_22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Johnson, S.P., Menor, L.J., Roth, A.V., Chase, R.B.: A critical evaluation of the new service development process: integrating innovation and service design. In: Fitzsimmons, J.A., Fitzsimmons, M.J. (eds.) New Service Development: Creating Memorable Experiences, pp. 1–32. Sage Publication, Thousand Oaks (2000)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Clayton, R.J., Backhouse, C.J., Dani, S.: Evaluating existing approaches to product-service system design: a comparison with industrial practice. J. Manuf. Technol. Manag. 23(3), 272–298 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Drǎgoicea, M., Salehpour, S., Nóvoa, H., Oltean, V.E.: Towards a proposal for the sustainability through institutions in public transport services in times of emergency. In: Za, S., Drăgoicea, M., Cavallari, M. (eds.) IESS 2017. LNBIP, vol. 279, pp. 355–369. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56925-3_28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Liew, A.: DIKIW: data, information, knowledge, intelligence, wisdom and their interrelationships. Bus. Manag. Dyn. 2(10), 49–62 (2013)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baškarada, S., Koronios, A.: Data, information, knowledge, wisdom (DIKW): a semiotic theoretical and empirical exploration of the hierarchy and its quality dimension. Aust. J. Inf. Syst., [S.l.] 18(1) (2013).  https://doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v18i1.748. ISSN 1449-8618
  60. 60.
    Mattsson, L.G., Jenelius, E.: Vulnerability and resilience of transport systems-a discussion of recent research. Transp. Res. Part A: Policy Pract. 81, 16–34 (2015)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bitner, M.J., Zeithaml, V.A., Gremler, D.D.: Technology’s impact on the gaps model of service quality. In: Maglio, P., Kieliszewski, C., Spohrer, J. (eds.) Handbook of service science, pp. 197–218. Springer, Boston (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1628-0_10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Arthur, W.B.: The Nature of Technology: What it is and How it Evolves. Simon and Schuster, New York City (2009)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ostrom, E.: Design principles and threats to sustainable organizations that manage commons. In: Paper for Electronic Conference on Small Farmer’s Economic Organizations, Organized by Julio A. Berdegue. Santiago, Chile, March 1999Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Barile, S., Polese, F.: Linking the viable system and many-to-many network approaches to service-dominant logic and service science. Int. J. Qual. Serv. Sci. 2(1), 23–42 (2010)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Spohrer, J., Golinelli, G.M., Piciocchi, P., Bassano, C.: An integrated SS-VSA analysis of changing job roles. Serv. Sci. 2(1–2), 1–20 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Barile, S., Polese, F.: Smart service systems and viable service systems: applying systems theory to service science. Serv. Sci. 2(1–2), 21–40 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Polese, F., Tommasetti, A., Vesci, M., Carrubbo, L., Troisi, O.: Decision-making in smart service systems: a viable systems approach contribution to service science advances. In: Borangiu, T., Drăgoicea, M., Nóvoa, H. (eds.) IESS 2016. LNBIP, vol. 247, pp. 3–14. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32689-4_1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Badinelli, R., Barile, S., Ng, I., Polese, F., Saviano, M., Di Nauta, P.: Viable service systems and decision making in service management. J. Serv. Manag. 23(4), 498–526 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Spohrer, J., Bassano, C., Piciocchi, P., Siddike, M.A.K.: What makes a System Smart? Wise? In: Ahram, T., Karwowski, W. (eds.) Advances in The Human Side of Service Engineering. AISC, pp. 23–34. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41947-3_3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Siddike, M.A.K., Iwano, K., Hidaka, K., Kohda, Y., Spohrer, J.: Wisdom service systems: harmonious interactions between people and machine. In: Freund, L.E., Cellary, W. (eds.) AHFE 2017. AISC, vol. 601, pp. 115–127. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60486-2_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Spohrer, J., Maglio, P.P., Bailey, J., Gruhl, D.: Steps toward a science of service systems. Computer 40(1), 71–77 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Automatic Control and ComputersUniversity Politehnica of BucharestBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Superior Institute for Public HealthUSJ LebanonBeirutLebanon
  3. 3.Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations