Global Climate Change and Human Interferences as Risk Factors, and their Impacts on Geomorphological Features as well as on Farming Practices in Sundarbans Eco-Region

  • Uttam Kumar MandalEmail author
  • B. Maji
  • Sourav Mullick
  • Dibyendu Bikas Nayak
  • K. K. Mahanta
  • S. Raut
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 30)


Substantially resourceful and densely populated Sundarbans delta, covering India and Bangladesh, experiences numerous extreme events linked to various hydro-meteorological processes. Further, anthropogenic activities in the coastal zones are accentuating environmental degradation causing wide spread suffering. While large tracts of the Sundarbans were cleared, drained and reclaimed for cultivation during the British colonial era, the remaining parts have been under various protection regimes since 1970s to protect the various flora and fauna. Spatio-temporal study using satellite remote sensing showed, while the mangroves’ areal extent has not changed much in the recent past, accretion rate of coastline has declined as against erosion rate which has remained relatively high in the recent years. As a result, the delta front has undergone a net erosion of ~170 km2 of coastal land during 1973–2010. Thus, the various factors affecting such changes are direct human interference, upstream development in the river hydrology, climate change, extreme weather events including cyclones, tidal surges, floods, sea level rise, salinity intrusion, etc. acting individually or through their interactions. Impact of such factors on agriculture and aquaculture being the main components towards livelihood security has been discussed. There is a need for integration of traditional coping practices and wisdoms with modern scientific management approach in this eco-region to reduce the effects of climate change- and other natural or human factor-induced disasters, and arrest nature and extent of human sufferings for improvement of livelihood enterprises, agriculture and aquaculture being the most important.


Sundarbans Bengal delta Climate change Anthropogenic interferences Geomorphology Farming for livelihood 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uttam Kumar Mandal
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. Maji
    • 1
  • Sourav Mullick
    • 1
  • Dibyendu Bikas Nayak
    • 1
  • K. K. Mahanta
    • 1
  • S. Raut
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station Canning TownWest BengalIndia

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