Advertisement

Cognitive Functioning of U.S. Adults by Race and Hispanic Origin

  • Carlos Díaz-VenegasEmail author
  • Brian Downer
  • Kenneth M. Langa
  • Rebeca Wong
Chapter

Abstract

The U.S. older adult population is becoming increasingly diverse. The evidence from research using data from diverse older adult populations indicates that Hispanics have poorer performance on cognitive tests than older non-Hispanic whites (NHW). However, the evidence that older Hispanics are at an increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease or related dementia (ADRD) than NHW is less clear. Interpreting the evidence from existing research on disparities between NHWs and Hispanics is complicated by the fact that few studies have differentiated between Hispanic subgroups by country of origin. In this chapter, we use the ethnic descriptor of Hispanic as interchangeable with Latino. We summarize the current evidence on disparities between Hispanics and NHW in cognitive functioning and ADRD, and factors that may contribute to these disparities. This summary focuses on the rationale for considering specific Hispanic populations when studying differences in cognitive functioning between Hispanics and NHWs. Finally, we present and discuss the findings from an analysis of data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (n = 18,982) in which we examine differences in three cognitive domains by race/ethnicity, including four Hispanic subgroups. In this analysis, all Hispanic subgroups, except Cubans, had significantly lower scores for all cognitive domains compared to NHWs, with Puerto Ricans showing the lowest scores among Hispanics.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health (grant number R01 AG018016 to R.W.). The authors have no conflict of interest to report.

References

  1. Amieva, H., Mokri, H., Le Goff, M., Meillon, C., Jacqmin-Gadda, H., Foubert-Samier, A., et al. (2014). Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer’s disease: A study of 20 years of cognitive decline. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 137(Pt 4), 1167–1175.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awu035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arias, E. (2010). United States life tables by Hispanic origin. National Vital Statistics Reports, 2(152). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.Google Scholar
  3. Arroyo-Johnson, C., Mincey, K. D., Ackermann, N., Milam, L., Goodman, M. S., & Colditz, G. A. (2016). Racial and ethnic heterogeneity in self-reported diabetes prevalence trends across Hispanic subgroups, National Health Interview Survey, 1997–2012. Prev Chronic Dis, 13, E10.  https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd13.150260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertram, L., McQueen, M. B., Mullin, K., Blacker, D., & Tanzi, R. E. (2007). Systematic meta-analyses of Alzheimer disease genetic association studies: The AlzGene database. Nature Genetics, 39(1), 17–23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17192785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bostean, G. (2013). Does selective migration explain the Hispanic paradox? A comparative analysis of Mexicans in the U.S. and Mexico. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 15(3), 624–635.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-012-9646-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandt, J., Spencer, M., & Folstein, M. F. (1988). The telephone interview for cognitive status. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 1, 111–117.Google Scholar
  7. Brewster, P. W., Melrose, R. J., Marquine, M. J., Johnson, J. K., Napoles, A., MacKay-Brandt, A., et al. (2014). Life experience and demographic influences on cognitive function in older adults. Neuropsychology, 28(6), 846–858. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24933483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caamano-Isorna, F., Corral, M., Montes-Martinez, A., & Takkouche, B. (2006). Education and dementia: A meta-analytic study. Neuroepidemiology, 26(4), 226–232. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16707907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cagney, K. A., & Lauderdale, D. S. (2002). Education, wealth, and cognitive function in later life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57(2), P163–P172.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/57.2.P163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carson, A. P., Howard, G., Burke, G. L., Shea, S., Levitan, E. B., & Muntner, P. (2011). Ethnic differences in hypertension incidence among middle-aged and older adults: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Hypertension, 57(6), 1101–1107.  https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.168005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Casagrande, S. S., Sotres-Alvarez, D., Aviles-Santa, L., O’Brien, M. J., Palacios, C., Perez, C. M., et al. (2018). Variations of dietary intake by glycemic status and Hispanic/Latino heritage in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, 6(1), e000486.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2017-000486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). National diabetes statistics report: Estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf.
  13. Choi, H., Schoeni, R. F., Martin, L. G., & Langa, K. M. (2018). Trends in the prevalence and disparity in cognitive limitations of Americans 55–69 years old. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 73(suppl_1), S29–S37.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbx155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collins, N., Sachs-Ericsson, N., Preacher, K. J., Sheffield, K. M., & Markides, K. (2009). Smoking increases risk for cognitive decline among community-dwelling older Mexican Americans. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(11), 934–942.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181b0f8df.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corder, E. H., Saunders, A. M., Strittmatter, W. J., Schmechel, D. E., Gaskell, P. C., Small, G. W., et al. (1993). Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in late onset families. Science, 261(5123), 921–923. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8346443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corsino, L., Sotres-Alvarez, D., Butera, N. M., Siega-Riz, A. M., Palacios, C., Perez, C. M., et al. (2017). Association of the DASH dietary pattern with insulin resistance and diabetes in U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, 5(1), e000402.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2017-000402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crimmins, E. M., Kim, J. K., Langa, K. M., & Weir, D. R. (2011). Assessment of cognition using surveys and neuropsychological assessment: The Health and Retirement Study and the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(Suppl 1), i162–i171. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21743047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crowe, M., Clay, O. J., Martin, R. C., Howard, V. J., Wadley, V. G., Sawyer, P., et al. (2013). Indicators of childhood quality of education in relation to cognitive function in older adulthood. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(2), 198–204.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gls122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daviglus, M. L., Talavera, G. A., Aviles-Santa, M. L., Allison, M., Cai, J., Criqui, M. H., et al. (2012). Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic/Latino individuals of diverse backgrounds in the United States. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 308(17), 1775–1784.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.14517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Díaz-Venegas, C., Downer, B., Langa, K. M., & Wong, R. (2016). Racial and ethnic differences in cognitive function among older adults in the USA. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(9), 1004–1012.  https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dominguez, K., Penman-Aguilar, A., Chang, M.-H., Moonesinghe, R., Castellanos, T., Rodríguez-Lainz, A., et al. (2015). Vital signs: Leading causes of death, prevalence of diseases and risk factors, and use of health services among Hispanics in the United States—2009–2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64(17), 469–478.Google Scholar
  22. Downer, B., Garcia, M. A., Saenz, J., Markides, K. S., & Wong, R. (2017). The role of education in the relationship between age of migration to the United States and risk of cognitive impairment among older Mexican Americans. Research on Aging, Jan 1: 164027517701447(Epub ahead of print), 164027517701447.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027517701447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Everett, B. G., Rogers, R. G., Hummer, R. A., & Krueger, P. M. (2011). Trends in educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, and sex in the United States, 1989–2005. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(9), 1543–1566.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2010.543139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Farrer, L. A., Cupples, L. A., Haines, J. L., Hyman, B., Kukull, W. A., Mayeux, R., et al. (1997). Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease. A meta-analysis. APOE and Alzheimer Disease Meta Analysis Consortium. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(16), 1349–1356. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9343467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Finkel, D., McArdle, J. J., Reynolds, C. A., & Pedersen, N. L. (2007). Age changes in processing speed as a leading indicator of cognitive aging. Psychology and Aging, 22(3), 558–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fitzpatrick, A. L., Kuller, L. H., Ives, D. G., Lopez, O. L., Jagust, W., Breitner, J. C., et al. (2004). Incidence and prevalence of dementia in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(2), 195–204. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14728627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garcia, M. A., Reyes, A. M., Downer, B., Saenz, J. L., Samper-Ternent, R. A., & Raji, M. (2018). Age of migration and the incidence of cognitive impairment: A cohort study of elder Mexican-Americans. Innovation in Aging, in press, 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx037.
  28. Gonzalez, H. M., Tarraf, W., Gouskova, N., Gallo, L. C., Penedo, F. J., Davis, S. M., et al. (2015). Neurocognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latinos: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: The Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 30(1), 68–77.  https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acu066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. González-Barrera, A., & Lopez, M. H. (2013). A demographic portrait of Mexican-origin Hispanics in the United States. Washington, DC. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2013/05/01/a-demographic-portrait-of-mexican-origin-hispanics-in-the-united-states.
  30. Grady, C. L., & Craik, F. I. (2000). Changes in memory processing with age. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(2), 224–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gurland, B. J., Wilder, D. E., Lantigua, R., Stern, Y., Chen, J., Killeffer, E. H., & Mayeux, R. (1999). Rates of dementia in three ethnoracial groups. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(6), 481–493. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10398359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haan, M. N., Mungas, D. M., Gonzalez, H. M., Ortiz, T. A., Acharya, A., & Jagust, W. J. (2003). Prevalence of dementia in older Latinos: The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke and genetic factors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(2), 169–177. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12558712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Håkansson, K., Rovio, S., Helkala, E. L., Vilska, A. R., Winblad, B., Soininen, H., et al. (2009). Association between mid-life marital status and cognitive function in later life: Population-based cohort study. BMJ, 339, b2462.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Health and Retirement Study. (2008). Survey design. http://hrsonline.isr.umich.edu/sitedocs/surveydesign.pdf.
  35. Health and Retirement Study. (2010). 2010 Core Final, Version 1.0, Data description and usage. Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  36. Health and Retirement Study. (2011). Sample sizes and response rates. http://hrsonline.isr.umich.edu/sitedocs/sampleresponse.pdf.
  37. Henao-Martínez, A. F., & Castillo-Mancilla, J. R. (2013). The Hispanic HIV epidemic. Current Infectious Disease Reports, 15(1), 46–51.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11908-012-0306-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hill, T. D., Angel, J., & Balistreri, K. S. (2012a). Does the “healthy immigrant effect” extend to cognitive aging? In J. Angel, F. Torres-Gil, & K. Markides (Eds.), Aging, health, and longevity in the Mexican-origin population (pp. 19–33). New York: Springer Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hill, T. D., Angel, J. L., Balistreri, K. S., & Herrera, A. P. (2012b). Immigrant status and cognitive functioning in late-life: An examination of gender variations in the healthy immigrant effect. Social Science and Medicine, 75(12), 2076–2084.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jacobsen, L. A., Kent, M., Lee, M., & Mather, M. (2011). America’s aging population. Population Bulletin, 66(1).Google Scholar
  41. Jones, R. N. (2006). Identification of measurement differences between English and Spanish language versions of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Detecting differential item functioning using MIMIC modeling. Med Care, 44(11 Suppl 3), S124–S133.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mlr.0000245250.50114.0f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jun, G., Naj, A. C., Beecham, G. W., Wang, L. S., Buros, J., Gallins, P. J., et al. (2010). Meta-analysis confirms CR1, CLU, and PICALM as Alzheimer’s disease risk loci and reveals interactions with APOE genotypes. Archives of Neurology, 67(12), 1473–1484.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2010.201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Katz, M. J., Lipton, R. B., Hall, C. B., Zimmerman, M. E., Sanders, A. E., Verghese, J., et al. (2012). Age-specific and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer’s dementia in blacks and whites: A report from the Einstein Aging Study. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 26(4), 335–343.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0b013e31823dbcfc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Langa, K. M., Kabeto, M., & Weir, D. (2009). Report on race and cognitive impairment using HRS. 2010 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. http://www.alz.org/documents_custom/report_alzfactsfigures2010.pdf.
  45. Langa, K. M., Larson, E. B., Crimmins, E. M., Faul, J. D., Levine, D. A., Kabeto, M. U., et al. (2017). A comparison of the prevalence of dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012. JAMA Intern Med, 177(1), 51–58.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.6807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Langa, K. M., Larson, E. B., Karlawish, J. H., Cutler, D. M., Kabeto, M. U., Kim, S. Y., & Rosen, A. B. (2008). Trends in the prevalence and mortality of cognitive impairment in the United States: Is there evidence of a compression of cognitive morbidity? Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, 4(2), 134–144. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18631957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lavange, L. M., Kalsbeek, W. D., Sorlie, P. D., Aviles-Santa, L. M., Kaplan, R. C., Barnhart, J., et al. (2010). Sample design and cohort selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Annals of Epidemiology, 20(8), 642–649.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.05.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Livney, M. G., Clark, C. M., Karlawish, J. H., Cartmell, S., Negron, M., Nunez, J., et al. (2011). Ethnoracial differences in the clinical characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease at initial presentation at an urban Alzheimer’s disease center. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(5), 430–439.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181f7d881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Manly, J. J., Jacobs, D. M., Touradji, P., Small, S. A., & Stern, Y. (2002). Reading level attenuates differences in neuropsychological test performance between African American and White elders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 8(3), 341–348. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11939693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Manly, J. J., Schupf, N., Stern, Y., Brickman, A. M., Tang, M. X., & Mayeux, R. (2011). Telephone-based identification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a multicultural cohort. Archives of Neurology, 68(5), 607–614.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2011.88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Manly, J. J., Schupf, N., Tang, M. X., & Stern, Y. (2005). Cognitive decline and literacy among ethnically diverse elders. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 18(4), 213–217.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891988705281868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Manly, J. J., Touradji, P., Tang, M. X., & Stern, Y. (2003). Literacy and memory decline among ethnically diverse elders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(5), 680–690.  https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.25.5.680.14579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Markides, K. S., & Coreil, J. (1986). The health of Hispanics in the southwestern United States: An epidemiologic paradox. Public Health Reports, 101(3), 253–265. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3086917.
  54. Markides, K. S., & Eschbach, K. (2005). Aging, migration, and mortality: Current status of research on the Hispanic paradox. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(Spec No. 2), 68–75. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16251594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Markides, K. S., & Gerst, K. (2011). Immigration, aging, and health in the United States. In R. A. Settersten & J. L. Angel (Eds.), Handbook of sociology of aging (pp. 103–116). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maurer, J. (2011). Education and male-female differences in later-life cognition: International evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean. Demography, 48(3), 915–930.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-011-0048-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mayeda, E. R., Glymour, M. M., Quesenberry, C. P., & Whitmer, R. A. (2016). Inequalities in dementia incidence between six racial and ethnic groups over 14 years. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2015.12.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mayeda, E. R., Karter, A. J., Huang, E. S., Moffet, H. H., Haan, M. N., & Whitmer, R. A. (2014). Racial/ethnic differences in dementia risk among older type 2 diabetic patients: The diabetes and aging study. Diabetes Care, 37(4), 1009–1015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24271192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meng, X., & D’Arcy, C. (2012). Education and dementia in the context of the cognitive reserve hypothesis: A systematic review with meta-analyses and qualitative analyses. PLoS ONE, 7(6), e38268.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miranda, P. Y., González, H. M., & Tarraf, W. (2011). Pathways between acculturation and health: Does the measure matter? Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 33(4), 524–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nguyen, H. T., Black, S. A., Ray, L. A., Espino, D. V., & Markides, K. S. (2002). Predictors of decline in MMSE scores among older Mexican Americans. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57(3), M181–M185. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nilsson, L. G., Sternäng, O., Rönnlund, M., & Nyberg, L. (2009). Challenging the notion of an early-onset of cognitive decline. Neurobiology of Aging, 30(4), 521–524; discussion 530–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. O’Bryant, S. E., Humphreys, J. D., Schiffer, R. B., & Sutker, P. B. (2007). Presentation of Mexican Americans to a memory disorder clinic. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 137–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Bryant, S. E., Johnson, L., Balldin, V., Edwards, M., Barber, R., Williams, B., et al. (2013). Characterization of Mexican Americans with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease: JAD, 33(2), 373–379. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22976076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ofstedal, M. B., & Weir, D. R. (2011). The recruitment and retention of minority participants in the health and retirement study. The Gerontologist, 51(Suppl. 1), S8–S20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ogden, C. L., Lamb, M. M., Carroll, M. D., & Flegal, K. M. (2010). Obesity and socioeconomic status in adults: United States, 2005–2008. NCHS Data Brief (50), 1–8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21211165.
  67. Pabon-Nau, L. P., Cohen, A., Meigs, J. B., & Grant, R. W. (2010). Hypertension and diabetes prevalence among U.S. Hispanics by country of origin: The National Health Interview Survey 2000–2005. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(8), 847-852.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-010-1335-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Palloni, A., & Arias, E. (2004). Paradox lost: Explaining the Hispanic adult mortality advantage. Demography, 41(3), 385–415. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15461007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Plassman, B. L., Langa, K. M., Fisher, G. G., Heeringa, S. G., Weir, D. R., Ofstedal, M. B., et al. (2007). Prevalence of dementia in the United States: The aging, demographics, and memory study. Neuroepidemiology, 29(1–2), 125–132. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17975326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Plassman, B. L., Langa, K. M., Fisher, G. G., Heeringa, S. G., Weir, D. R., Ofstedal, M. B., et al. (2008). Prevalence of cognitive impairment without dementia in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(6), 427–434. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18347351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ramirez, M., Teresi, J. A., Holmes, D., Gurland, B., & Lantigua, R. (2006). Differential item functioning (DIF) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Overview, sample, and issues of translation. Med Care, 44(11 Suppl 3), S95–S106. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17060840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reitz, C., & Mayeux, R. (2014). Genetics of Alzheimer’s disease in Caribbean Hispanic and African American populations. Biological Psychiatry, 75(7), 534–541.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Roe, C. M., Xiong, C., Miller, J. P., & Morris, J. C. (2007). Education and Alzheimer’s disease without dementia: Support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis. Neurology, 68(3), 223–228. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17224578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sachs-Ericsson, N., Corsentino, E., & Cougle, J. R. (2009). Problems meeting basic needs predict cognitive decline in community-dwelling Hispanic older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 21(6), 848–863.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264309340689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Saunders, A. M., Strittmatter, W. J., Schmechel, D., George-Hyslop, P. H., Pericak-Vance, M. A., Joo, S. H., et al. (1993). Association of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4 with late-onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 43(8), 1467–1472. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8350998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Scarmeas, N., Zarahn, E., Anderson, K. E., Hilton, J., Flynn, J., Van Heertum, R. L., et al. (2003). Cognitive reserve modulates functional brain responses during memory tasks: A PET study in healthy young and elderly subjects. NeuroImage, 19(3), 1215–1227. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12880846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schaie, K. W. (1994). The course of adult intellectual-development. American Psychologist, 49(4), 304–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schwartz, B. S., Glass, T. A., Bolla, K. I., Stewart, W. F., Glass, G., Rasmussen, M., et al. (2004). Disparities in cognitive functioning by race/ethnicity in the Baltimore Memory Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(3), 314–320. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14998746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sisco, S., Gross, A. L., Shih, R. A., Sachs, B. C., Glymour, M. M., Bangen, K. J., et al. (2015). The role of early-life educational quality and literacy in explaining racial disparities in cognition in late life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70(4), 557–567.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbt133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sloan, F. A., & Wang, J. S. (2005). Disparities among older adults in measures of cognitive function by race or ethnicity. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(5), P242–P250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sorlie, P. D., Aviles-Santa, L. M., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Kaplan, R. C., Daviglus, M. L., Giachello, A. L., et al. (2010). Design and implementation of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Annals of Epidemiology, 20(8), 629–641.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.03.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. StataCorp. (2015). Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
  83. Stern, Y. (2002). What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 8(3), 448–460. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11939702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stern, Y., Zarahn, E., Hilton, H. J., Flynn, J., DeLaPaz, R., & Rakitin, B. (2003). Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(5), 691–701.  https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.25.5.691.14573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tang, M. X., Cross, P., Andrews, H., Jacobs, D. M., Small, S., Bell, K., et al. (2001). Incidence of AD in African-Americans, Caribbean Hispanics, and Caucasians in northern Manhattan. Neurology, 56(1), 49–56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11148235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tang, M. X., Stern, Y., Marder, K., Bell, K., Gurland, B., Lantigua, R., et al. (1998). The APOE-epsilon4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease among African Americans, Whites, and Hispanics. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(10), 751–755. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9508150.
  87. Unger, J. B., & Schwartz, S. J. (2012). Conceptual considerations in studies of cultural influences on health behaviors. Preventive Medicine, 55(5), 353–355.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.09.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Table 9: Resident population by race, Hispanic origin, and age: 2000 and 2009. Washington, DC. http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/11statab/pop.pdf.
  89. U.S. Census Bureau. (2014). Table 1: Educational attainment of the population 18 years and over, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 2014. Current Population Survey: Annual Social and Economic Supplement. http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/education/data/cps/2014/tables.html.
  90. van Gelder, B. M., Tijhuis, M., Kalmijn, S., Giampaoli, S., Nissinen, A., & Kromhout, D. (2006). Marital status and living situation during a 5-year period are associated with a subsequent 10-year cognitive decline in older men: The FINE Study. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61(4), P213–P219. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16855033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vidot, D. C., Stoutenberg, M., Gellman, M., Arheart, K. L., Teng, Y., Daviglus, M. L., et al. (2016). Alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome among Hispanics/Latinos: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 14(7), 354–362.  https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2015.0171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Working Group on Health Outcomes for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic, C. (2012). Universal health outcome measures for older persons with multiple chronic conditions. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(12), 2333–2341.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04240.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zsembik, B. A., & Peek, M. K. (2001). Race differences in cognitive functioning among older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(5), S266–S274. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11522808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Díaz-Venegas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brian Downer
    • 2
  • Kenneth M. Langa
    • 3
  • Rebeca Wong
    • 4
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Max-Planck-Institut für Demografische Forschung)RostockGermany
  2. 2.Division of Rehabilitation SciencesThe University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  3. 3.Division of General MedicineUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of Preventive Medicine and Community HealthSealy Center on Aging, WHO/PAHO Collaborating Center on Aging and Health, the University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA

Personalised recommendations