Advertisement

Multilateral Diplomacy: Diplomacy in Congress

  • Yolanda Kemp Spies
Chapter

Abstract

The focus of this chapter is multilateral diplomacy, a mode that has developed exponentially over the past century for a variety of practical, normative and symbolic reasons. The expansion and diversification of international society, in particular the emergence of the Global South, has fed the phenomenon. Spies identifies the contemporary manifestations of multilateral diplomacy: the traditional distinction between conference and parliamentary diplomacy; new concepts such as ‘minilateral’, ‘network’ and ‘club’ diplomacy; as well as multilateral-within-multilateral diplomacy, i.e. different forms of ‘plurilateral’ diplomacy. Attention is given to the role of intergovernmental organisations (IGOs) because they create hubs of multilateral diplomacy and they are important diplomatic actors in their own right. The opportunities and challenges inherent to multilateral diplomacy are explored from the state-centric perspective of foreign ministries.

Sources Used

  1. Alfred Nobel Memorial Foundation. (2016). Official Internet Web-Site of the Nobel Prize. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/.
  2. Annan, K. A. (2005). In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All: Report of the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations, Department of Public Information.Google Scholar
  3. Archer, C. (1992). International Organizations (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). (2007). Charter of ASEAN.Google Scholar
  5. Barston, R. P. (2006). Modern Diplomacy (3rd ed.). London: Pearson/Longman.Google Scholar
  6. Berridge, G. R. (2010). Diplomacy: Theory and Practice (4th ed.). Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blomqvist, H. C., Lindholm, C., Lundahl, M., & Schauman, S. (1993). Some Experiences from Regional Cooperation Between Third World Countries. In B. Odén (Ed.), Southern Africa After Apartheid: Regional Integration and External Resources (Seminar Proceedings No. 28). Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.Google Scholar
  8. Bouchard, C., & Peterson, J. (2011, January). Conceptualising Multilateralism: Can We All Just Get Along? (MERCURY E-Paper No. 1). http://www.mercury-fp7.net/.
  9. Carta, C. (2014). The Diplomatic System of a Non-State Actor: The Commission’s Entry into the Diplomatic Scene. In D. Dialer, H. Neisser, & A. Opitz (Eds.), The EU’s External Action Service: Potentials for a One Voice Foreign Policy (pp. 33–45). Innsbruck: Innsbruck University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chesterman, S. (Ed.). (2007). Secretary or General? The UN Secretary-General in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cooper, A., Hocking, B., & Maley, W. (Eds.). (2008). Global Governance and Diplomacy: Worlds Apart. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. De Alwis, A. (2016, June 7). A New Age of Minilateralism: Potential Solutions for the South China Sea Conundrum. Diplomatic Courier. http://www.diplomaticourier.com/2016/06/07/new-age-minilateralism-potential-solutions-south-china-sea-conundrum/.
  13. Devin, G., & Törnquist-Chesnier, M. (2010). Burst Diplomacy—The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods. Brazilian Political Science Review, 4(2), 60–77.Google Scholar
  14. Dlamini-Zuma, N. (2007). Comment by the South African Minister of Foreign Affairs Regarding ‘South African Vote in the United Nations Security Council’. Internet Site of the South African Department of Foreign Affairs: DFA News and Events. http://www.dfa.gov.za/docs/2007pq/pq22.htm. Accessed on 5 January 2008.
  15. Evans, G. (2013). Commission Diplomacy. In A. F. Cooper, J. Heine, & R. Thakur (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. G20. (2009, September 24–25). Leaders’ Statement, Pittsburgh Summit. http://www.g20.org/Documents/pittsburgh_summit_leaders_statement_250909.pdf. Accessed on 9 June 2010.
  17. Haass, R. N. (2008, May/June). The Age of Nonpolarity: What Will Follow US Dominance. Foreign Affairs, 87(3), 44–56.Google Scholar
  18. Hemery, J. (2002). ‘Educating Diplomats’: In Academics, Practitioners and Diplomacy: An ISP Symposium on the Theory and Practice of Diplomacy. International Studies Perspectives, (3)2: 140–145.Google Scholar
  19. Holsti, K. J. (2004). Taming the Sovereigns: Institutional Change in International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hurrell, A. (2004, March). Working with Diplomatic Culture: Some Latin American and Brazilian Questions. Paper Prepared for International Studies Association, Conference in Montreal.Google Scholar
  21. International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). (2001). The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  22. Jones, E., & Whittingham, P. (1998, October). Understanding the World Trade Organisation: Implications and Possibilities for the South. Foundation for Global Dialogue (Occasional Paper No. 13).Google Scholar
  23. Jönsson, C., & Hall, M. (2005). Essence of Diplomacy. Houndsmill: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karns, M. P., & Mingst, K. A. (2010). International Organisations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  25. Karns, M. P., & Mingst, K. A. (2013). International Organizations and Diplomacy. In A. F. Cooper, J. Heine, & R. Thakur (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kaufmann, J. (1996). Conference Diplomacy. London: Macmillan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keohane, R. O. (1967). The Study of Political Influence in the General Assembly. International Organisation, 21(2), 221–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Langhorne, R. (2005). The Diplomacy of Non-State Actors. Diplomacy & Statecraft, 16(2), 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Langhorne, R., & Wallace, W. (1999). Diplomacy Towards the Twenty-First Century. In B. Hocking (Ed.), Foreign Ministries: Change and Adaptation. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  30. Leguey-Feilleux, J.-R. (2009). The Dynamics of Diplomacy. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  31. Mahbubani, K. (2013). Multilateral Diplomacy. In A. F. Cooper, J. Heine, & R. Thakur (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Malone, D. M. (2013). The Modern Diplomatic Mission. In A. F. Cooper, J. Heine, & R. Thakur (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Mathews, J. T. (1997, January–February). Power Shift. Foreign Affairs, 76(1), 50–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Naim, M. (2009, June 21). Minilateralism: The Magic Number to Get Real International Action. Foreign Policy. http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/06/21/minilateralism/.
  35. Netanyahu, B. (2017, June 4). Speech by the Prime Minister of Israel to the ECOWAS Africa-Israel Summit, Monrovia (Liberia). Press Release by Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  36. Peterson, M. J. (1986). The General Assembly in World Politics. Boston: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  37. Pigman, G. A. (2010). Contemporary Diplomacy: Representation and Communication in a Globalised World. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  38. Saner, R., & Yiu, L. (2003, January). International Economic Diplomacy: Mutations in Post-modern Times. Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ (Discussion Paper No. 84).Google Scholar
  39. Smith, C. B. (2006). Politics and Process at the United Nations: The Global Dance. London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  40. Sofer, S. (1988). Old and New Diplomacy: A Debate Revisited. Review of International Studies, 14(3), 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Spence, D. (2003). The Evolving Role of Foreign Ministries in the Conduct of European Union Affairs. In B. Hocking & D. Spence (Eds.), Foreign Ministries in the European Union. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  42. Spies, Y. K. (2013). Chapter 15: Multilateral Diplomats in the Early Twenty-First Century. In B. Reinalda (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of International Organization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Sucharipa, E. (2003, January). 21st Century Diplomacy. Paper Delivered by the Director of the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna, at the Wilton Park Conference on “The Role of Diplomats in the Modern World”.Google Scholar
  44. Thakur, R. (2011, January–August). The United Nations and the Quest for World Peace. Crossroads: The Macedonian Foreign Policy Journal, II(4), 81–93.Google Scholar
  45. United Nations. (2004). A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility: Report of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. New York: United Nations, Department of Public Information.Google Scholar
  46. United Nations. (1945, October 24). ‘Charter of the United Nations’, 1 UNTS XVI, Available at http://www.unwebsite.com/charter.
  47. United Press International (UPI). (1961). Year (1961) in Review. UPI Audio Archives. http://www.upi.com/Archives/Audio/Events-of-1961/Death-of-Dag-Hammarskj/. Accessed on 5 August 2014.
  48. Urquhart, B. (2007). The Evolution of the Secretary-General. In S. Chesterman (Ed.), Secretary or General? The United Nations Secretary-General in World Politics (pp. 16–32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Van Wyk, J.-A. (2016). High-Level Panels as Diplomatic Instruments: The African Union Panel of the Wise and the Emergence of an African Peace Diplomacy Architecture. Journal for Contemporary History / Joernaal vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, 41(1), 57–79.Google Scholar
  50. Varghese, P. (2013, November 7). The Challenges of Multilateralism: Sir James Plimsoll Lecture. Delivered by the Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia. https://www.dfat.gov.au/media/speeches/department/131107-plimsoll.html#site-header.
  51. World Bank Group. (2009). Repowering the World Bank for the 21st Century. Report by the High-Level Commission on Modernising the Governance of the World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  52. Wright, T. (2013). Chapter 10: Bilateral and Multilateral Diplomacy in Normal Times and in Crises. In P. Kerr & G. Wiseman (Eds.), Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and Practices (pp. 175–191). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Zoellick, R. B. (2009, October 20). Letter from the President of the World Bank Group, to Dr. Ernesto Zedillo. Director of the Yale Centre for the Study of Globalization, New Haven, CT. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/WBGovernanceCOMMISSIONREPORT.pdf.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yolanda Kemp Spies
    • 1
  1. 1.University of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations