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Bifurcation Analysis of Ship Motions in Steep Quartering Seas, Including Hydrodynamic “Memory”

  • Ioannis Tigkas
  • Kostas J. SpyrouEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications book series (FMIA, volume 119)

Abstract

Steady-state ship dynamics in steep harmonic waves encountering the ship from stern quartering direction is under investigation. Bifurcation analysis is performed by applying a numerical continuation method. Stationary as well as periodic states are traced, as selected control parameters are varied. Regions with coexistence of different ship responses are identified. The main novelty of the paper lies in the extension of the continuation analysis to a 6-DOF model, for a quartering sea environment, with inclusion of memory effects within a potential flow framework. Complete, vessel-specific stability diagrams, for horizontal plane motions, are produced in an automated and time-efficient manner. These could provide useful guidance to ship masters for avoiding the occurrence of surf-riding and broaching-to.

Keywords

Manoeuvring Surf-riding Broaching-to Bifurcation Homoclinic Continuation Nonlinear dynamics 

Nomenclature

A

Wave amplitude

\(A_{ij} \left( \omega \right)\)

Added mass coefficient

AR

Rudder area

\(a_{\psi } , \, a_{r}\)

Proportional, differential gain

\(B_{ij} \left( \omega \right)\)

Damping coefficient

c

Wave celerity

\(F_{N}\)

Rudder normal force

\(Fn\)

Froude number

H

Wave height

\(H/\lambda\)

Wave steepness

\(I_{x} , \, I_{y} , \, I_{z}\)

Roll, pitch and yaw ship mass moment of inertia

\(K, \, M, \, N\)

Moments in roll, pitch and yaw respectively

\(K_{ij} (\tau )\)

Impulse response function

\(K_{T}\)

Propeller thrust coefficient

k

Wave number \((k = {{2\pi } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{2\pi } \lambda }} \right. \kern-0pt} \lambda })\)

L

Ship length

m

Ship mass

\(q,p,r\)

Pitch, roll and yaw angular velocity in a body-fixed system, respectively

\(S\left( {x_{s} ,T_{s} } \right)\)

Vertical hull sectional area below instantaneous waterline

t

Time

\(t_{p}\)

Thrust deduction coefficient

tr

Rudder’s time constant

\(T_{s} \left( {x_{s} x_{0} ,t,z,\theta } \right)\)

Draught of ship at vertical section S

u, v, w

Surge, sway and heave velocity in a body-fixed system, respectively

\(U_{R}\)

Inflow velocity at rudder

\(X,\,Y,\,Z\)

Forces in surge, sway and heave respectively

x

Longitudinal distance travelled by the ship, with respect to a system fixed at a wave trough

\(x_{O}\)

Longitudinal distance travelled by the ship in an earth-fixed system

\(x_{S}\)

Longitudinal distance of a vertical ship section S in the body-fixed system

\(x_{G} ,\,\,z_{G}\)

Longitudinal distance from amidships and vertical distance from keel of ship’s centre of gravity, respectively

Greek Letters

δ

Rudder angle

Λ

Rudder aspect ratio

\(\theta\)

Pitch angle

λ

Wave length

\(\rho\)

Water density

\(\varphi\)

Roll angle

\(\psi\)

Heading angle

\(\psi_{r}\)

Desired heading angle

\(\omega_{e}\)

Encounter frequency

\(\omega\)

Wave frequency

Notes

Acknowledgements

Ioannis Tigkas would like to thank “Alexander S. Onassis” Public Benefit Foundation for a scholarship that supported his Ph.D. studies at NTUA.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Streamlined Naval Architects (Previously at, National Technical University of Athens)PiraeusGreece
  2. 2.School of Naval Architecture and Marine EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

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