The Green Vehicle Routing Problem with Occasional Drivers

  • Giusy MacrinaEmail author
  • Francesca Guerriero
Part of the AIRO Springer Series book series (AIROSS, volume 1)


This paper introduces a new variant of the green vehicle routing problem with crowd-shipping. The company has an own mixed fleet composed of conventional combustion engine and electric vehicles. In addition, ordinary people named “occasional drivers” are available to deliver items to some customers on their route. The objective is to minimize the sum of routing costs of conventional and electric vehicles, by including fuel consumption cost and energy consumption cost, and occasional drivers’ compensation. We describe an integer linear programming formulation for the problem and we also provide a comprehensive analysis on several indicators, such as routing costs and polluting emissions. The results show how the use of occasional drivers may lead not only to more convenient solutions, but also to highly interesting scenarios in a green perspective.


Green vehicle routing problem CO\(_2\) emissions Electric vehicles Crowd-shipping Occasional drivers 



This work was supported by MIUR “PRIN 2015” funds, project: Transportation and Logistics in the Era of Big Open Data - 2015JJLC3E_003 - CUP H52F15000190001.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical, Energy and Management EngineeringUniversity of CalabriaRende CSItaly

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