The Density Operator

  • Jochen PadeEmail author
Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)


Up to now, we have characterized a quantum-mechanical system by a vector \(\left| \psi \right\rangle \) of the Hilbert space. In the following, we will extend the concept of state, as we already promised in Chap. 14, Vol. 1. We will introduce the density operator or density matrix, the most general representation of states in quantum mechanics. This tool allows us to describe also states for which we do not have complete information, and which therefore cannot be represented by a vector in the Hilbert space. That such a description is useful or necessary may be surprising at first, but we will see that this formulation is quite handy, especially with regard to the discussion of the measurement process in quantum mechanics.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für PhysikUniversität OldenburgOldenburgGermany

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