Cotton Farming in India: Alternative Perspectives and Paradigms

  • Lipsa MohapatraEmail author
  • Goutam Saha
Part of the The Anthropocene: Politik—Economics—Society—Science book series (APESS, volume 26)


In the present context, cotton farming in India is far from being a Sustainable Agricultural System. India is the second-largest producer of conventional cotton after China. More than 90% of the cotton is produced from genetically modified, pest-resistant, high-yielding-Bt seeds. Before 2002, cotton cultivation in India relied on natural farming techniques using indigenous seeds and some hybrid varieties. A report from the Textile Exchange (Cotton—India, material snapshot, 2016a, Organic cotton market report, 2016b, Organic cotton material snapshot material scenario common uses in apparel and footwear, 2016c) says that, after a series of protests against the Bt cotton, many NGOs and local farmers’ associations in India have resorted to sustainable farming methods. Today, India is the largest producer of organic cotton and contributes about 70% of the world’s supply. Through the review of literature on the impact of Bt cotton and organic cotton from both a farming and fashion and a textile industry perspective, the authors have tried to emphasise the importance of organic cotton farming which is sustainable, eco-friendly and generates a healthy livelihood for farmers.


Bt cotton Organic cotton Sustainable agricultural systems Organic standards Sustainable fashion brands 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NIFTBhubaneswarIndia

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