Summary: Commercial Versus Social Marketing of Heritage Conservation Services

  • Izabella Parowicz


In the concluding chapter, the double, commercial and social dimension of marketing of heritage conservation services is touched upon. In commercial marketing, the aim is principally of a financial nature as it serves to increase the income of the providers of the service concerned, and at the same time, to raise the benefit for and the satisfaction of the customer. By contrast, social marketing aims for aggregated behavioural change; it uses marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon certain behaviours for the benefit of individuals, groups or society as a whole. Possible ways of merging commercial and social marketing activities in conservators’ daily practice are discussed.


Heritage conservation Commercial marketing Social marketing 


  1. Andreasen, A. R. (1995). Marketing Social Change: Changing Behavior to Promote Health, Social Development, and the Environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  2. Brenkert, G. G. (2002). Ethical Challenges of Social Marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 21(1), 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Claudy, M. C., Peterson, M., & O’Driscoll, A. (2013). Understanding the Attitude-Behavior Gap for Renewable Energy Systems Using Behavioral Reasoning Theory. Journal of Macromarketing, 33(4), 273–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dagger, T. S., & O’Brien, T. K. (2010). Does Experience Matter? Differences in Relationship Benefits, Satisfaction, Trust, Commitment and Loyalty for Novice and Experienced Service Users. European Journal of Marketing, 44(9/10), 1528–1552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Domegan, C. R. (2008). Social Marketing: Implications for Contemporary Marketing Practices Classification Scheme. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 23(2), 135–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donovan, R. (2011). Social Marketing’s Mythunderstandings. Journal of Social Marketing, 1(1), 8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fien, J., Ratanachai, C., Umaporn, M., & Suwannatachote, R. (2002). Participatory Planning as Environmental Adult Education: A Case Study of Local Environmental Governance in Thailand. Applied Environmental Education and Communication: An International Journal, 1(4), 255–262(8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gillen, T. (2005). Winning New Business in Construction. Aldershot: Gower Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  9. Grönroos, C. (2007). In Search of a New Logic for Marketing. Foundations of Contemporary Theory. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. Gummesson, E. (2008). Total Relationship Marketing (3rd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  11. Gummesson, E. (2017). From Relationship Marketing to Total Relationship Marketing and Beyond. Journal of Services Marketing, 31(1), 16–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hastings, G., & Saren, M. (2003). The Critical Contribution of Social Marketing: Theory and Application. Marketing Theory, 3, 305–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jacobson, S. K., McDuff, M. D., & Monroe, M. C. (2006). Conservation Education and Outreach Techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kotler, P. (1982). Marketing for Nonprofit Organisations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Inc.Google Scholar
  15. Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2008). Social Marketing: Influencing Behaviors for Good (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Kotler, P., & Zaltman, G. (1971). Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change. Journal of Marketing, 35(July), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lefebvre, R. C. (2011). An Integrative Model for Social Marketing. Journal of Social Marketing, 1(1), 54–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. MacFadyen, L., Stead, M., & Hastings, G. B. (2002). Social Marketing, Chapter 27. In M. J. Baker (Ed.), The Marketing Book (5th ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  19. McKenzie-Mohr, D., Lee, N. R., Schultz, P. W., & Kotler, P. (2011). Social Marketing to Protect the Environment. What Works. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Opel, D., Diekema, D., Lee, N., & Marcuse, E. (2009). Social Marketing as a Strategy to Increase Immunization Rates. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 432–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Parkinson, J., Schuster, L., & Russell-Bennett, R. (2016). Insights into the Complexity of Behaviours: The MOAB Framework. Journal of Social Marketing, 6(4), 412–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Parkinson, J., Russell-Bennett, R., & Previte, J. (2018). Challenging the Planned Behavior Approach in Social Marketing: Emotion and Experience Matter. European Journal of Marketing, 52(3/4), 837–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Parowicz, I. (2015). Marketing of Heritage Conservation Services Based on the Example of the Maltese Conservation Market. Habilitation Dissertation, European University Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder).Google Scholar
  24. Peattie, S., & Peattie, K. (2003). Ready to Fly Solo? Reducing Social Marketing’s Dependence on Commercial Marketing Theory. Marketing Theory, 3, 365–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rothschild, M. (1999). Carrots, Sticks, and Promises: A Conceptual Framework for the Management of Public Health and Social Issue Behaviors. Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 24–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sargeant, A. (2005). Marketing Management for Non-Profit Organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Sonkoly, G., & Vahtikari, T. (2018). Innovation in Cultural Heritage Research. For an Integrated European Research Policy. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation.Google Scholar
  28. Starr-Glass, D. (2011). Trust in Transactional and Relationship Marketing: Implications in a Post-Crisis World. Managing Global Transitions: International Research Journal, 9(2), 111–128.Google Scholar
  29. Stead, M., Gordon, R., Angus, K., & McDermott, L. (2007). A Systematic Review of Social Marketing Effectiveness. Health Education, 107(2), 126–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thomas, R. K. (2008). Health Services Marketing. A Practitioner’s Guide. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Weinreich, N. K (2006). What is Social Marketing? Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  32. Wilson, A. (1972). The Marketing of Professional Services. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Izabella Parowicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Strategies for European Cultural HeritageEuropean University ViadrinaFrankfurt (Oder)Germany

Personalised recommendations