Customers, Employees and Communication

  • Izabella Parowicz


In this chapter, Parowicz takes a closer look at the characteristics of the users of conservation services. The consecutive stages of their buying decision process are discussed. Customer uncertainty is presented as the factor most likely to prevent them from the decision to buy. Subsequently, this chapter takes a closer look at waiting time management. Next, the marketing power of the word of mouth is discussed. Considerations are taken about ways to proactively stimulate and generate good word of mouth. In particular, differences between satisfaction and delight are analysed. The final section of this chapter is dedicated to internal marketing that aims at motivating and empowering employees in order to be able to deliver a satisfying customer experience.


Heritage conservation Customer behaviour Customers Employees Buying decision process Customer uncertainty Internal marketing Word of mouth Customer delight Waiting time management 


  1. Anderson, E., & Sullivan, M. (1993). The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction for Firms. Marketing Science, 12(2), 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arndt, J. (1967). Role of Product-Related Conversations in the Diffusion of a New Product. Journal of Marketing Research, 4(3), 291–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ball, J., & Barnes, D. C. (2017). Delight and the Grateful Customer: Beyond Joy and Surprise. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 27(1), 250–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron, S., Harris, K., & Elliott, D. (2005). Consumer as Stakeholder in Service Crises: Perspectives from Services Marketing. Risk Management: An International Journal, 7(2), 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berman, B. (2005). How to Delight Your Customers. California Management Review, 48(1), 129–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhote, K. R. (1996). Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty. The Key to Greater Profitability. New York: AMA Membership Publications Division.Google Scholar
  7. Bielen, F., & Demoulin, N. (2007). Waiting Time Influence on the Satisfaction-Loyalty Relationship in Services. Managing Service Quality, 17(2), 174–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bikhchandani, S., Hirshleifer, D., & Welch, I. (1998). Learning from the Behavior of Others: Conformity, Fads, and Informational Cascade. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(3), 151–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bitner, M. J., Brown, S. W., & Meuter, M. L. (2000). Technology Infusion in Service Encounters. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 138–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boshoff, C. (2005). A Re-assessment and Refinement of RECOVSAT: An Instrument to Measure Satisfaction with Transaction-Specific Service Recovery. Managing Service Quality, 15(5), 410–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London/New York: Routledge Kegan and Paul.Google Scholar
  12. Chitturi, R., Raghunathan, R., & Mahajan, V. (2007). Form Versus Function: How the Intensities of Specific Emotions Evoked in Functional Versus Hedonic Trade-Offs Mediate Product Preferences. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(November), 702–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clow, K. E., & Stevens, R. E. (2009). Concise Encyclopedia of Professional Services Marketing. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Coye, R. W. (2004). Managing Customer Expectations in the Service Encounter. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(1), 54–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crotts, J. C., & Magnini, V. P. (2011). The Customer Delight Construct: Is Surprise Essential? Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), 719–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Czubała, A., Jonas, A., Smoleń, T., & Wiktor, J. W. (2006). Marketing usług. Kraków: Wolters Kluwer.Google Scholar
  17. Dabholkar, P. A. (1993). Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality: Two Constructs or One? In D. W. Cravens & P. Dickson (Eds.), Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing (pp. 10–18). Chicago: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  18. Dansky, K. H., & Miles, J. A. (1997). Patient Satisfaction with Ambulatory Healthcare Services: Waiting Time and Filling Time. Hospital & Health Services Administration, 42, 165–177.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, M., & Vollmann, T. (1990). A Framework for Relating Waiting Time and Customer Satisfaction in a Service Operation. Journal of Services Marketing, 4(1), 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Matos, C. A., & Rossi, C. A. V. (2008). Word-of-Mouth Communications in Marketing: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Antecedents and Moderators. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(4), 578–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Den Hertog, F., & Kunst, P. (1992). Get Involved. In P. Kunst & J. Lemmink (Eds.), Quality Management in Services. Assen: Van Gorcum.Google Scholar
  22. Echeverri, P., & Åkesson, M. (2018). Professional Identity in Service Work: Why Front-line Employees Do What They Do. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 28(3), 315–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fullerton, G., & Taylor, S. (2015). Dissatisfaction and Violation: Two Distinct Consequences of the Wait Experience. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 25(1), 31–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. George, W. R., & Grönroos, C. (1989). Developing Customer-Conscious Employees at Every Level: Internal Marketing. In C. A. Congram & M. L. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of Services Marketing. New York: AMACON in press.Google Scholar
  25. GfK Roper Consulting. (2006). Global Word-of-Mouth Study.Google Scholar
  26. Greene, W. E., Walls, G. D., & Schrest, L. J. (1994). Internal Marketing: The Key to External Marketing Success. Journal of Services Marketing, 8(4), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grönroos, C. (2003). Service Management and Marketing. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Grönroos, C. (2005). Service Marketing and Management. A Customer Relationship Management Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Grönroos, C. (2009). Marketing as Promise Management: Regaining Customer Management. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 24(5/6), 351–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gummesson, E. (1984). The Marketing of Professional Services – 25 Propositions. In C. H. Lovelock (Ed.), Services Marketing. New York: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Gummesson, E. (2008). Total Relationship Marketing (3rd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  32. Hansen, F. (1972). Consumer Choice Behavior: A Cognitive Theory. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  33. Harris, G. (1999). Empfehlen Sie uns weiter! Mundpropaganda als Marketingsinstrument. Wien/Hamburg: Signum.Google Scholar
  34. Hart, C. W. L., Heskett, J. L., & Sasser, W. E. (1990). The Profitable Art of Service Recovery. Harvard Business Review, 68, 148–156.Google Scholar
  35. Hausmann, A. (2013). Mitarbeiter als (wichtigste) Ressource: Rahmenbedingungen, Aufgabenfelder und Besonderheiten des Personalmanagement in Kulturbetrieben. In A. Hausmann & L. Murzik (Eds.), Erfolgsfaktor Mitarbeiter. Wirksames Personalmanagement für Kulturbetriebe (2. Auflage) (pp. 25–46). Wiesbaden: Springer VS.Google Scholar
  36. Hill, N., & Alexander, J. (2006). Handbook of Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Measurement (3rd ed.). Aldershot: Gower.Google Scholar
  37. Jacoby, J., & Chestnut, R. W. (1978). Brand Loyalty: Measurement and Management. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Johnson, E. M. (1964). An Introduction to the Problems of Service Marketing Management. Newark: University of Delaware.Google Scholar
  39. Johnston, R. (1995). The Zone of Tolerance. Exploring the Relationship Between Service Transactions and Satisfaction with the Overall Service. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 6(2), 46–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones, P., & Peppiatt, E. (1996). Managing Perceptions of Waiting Times in Service Queues. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 7(5), 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Katz, K. L., Larson, B. M., & Larson, R. C. (1991). Prescription for Waiting-in-Line Blues: Entertain, Enlighten, and Engage. Sloan Management Review, 32(Winter), 44–53.Google Scholar
  42. Kinard, B., & Capella, M. (2006). Relationship Marketing: The Influence of Consumer Involvement on Perceived Service Benefits. Journal of Services Marketing, 20(6), 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kirby, J., & Marsden, P. (2007). Connected Marketing. The Viral, Buzz and Word-of-Mouth Revolution. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  44. Kotler, P. (1991). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control. Sydney: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  45. Laing, A., Fischbacher, M., Hogg, G., & Smith, A. (2002). Managing and Marketing Health Services. London: Thomson.Google Scholar
  46. Løvendahl, B. (2005). Strategic Management of Professional Service Firms. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press DK.Google Scholar
  47. Maister, D. H. (1985). The Psychology of Waiting Lines. In J. A. Czepiel, M. R. Solomon, & C. F. Surprenant (Eds.), The Service Encounter. Lexington: Lexington Books D.C. Heath and Company.Google Scholar
  48. Maister, D. H. (1988). The Psychology of Waiting Lines. In J. Lovelock (Ed.), Managing Services. Marketing, Operations, and Human Resources (pp. 176–183). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  49. Maleri, R. (1997). Grundlagen der Dienstleistungsproduktion. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  50. Mazur, J. (2002). Zarządzanie marketingiem usług. Warszawa: Difin.Google Scholar
  51. McDougall, G., & Levesque, T. (1999). Waiting for Service: The Effectiveness of Recovery Strategies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(1), 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mudie, P., & Cottam, A. (1999). The Management and Marketing of Services. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  53. Nasr Bechwati, N. (2011). Willingness to Pay for Professional Services. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 20(1), 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nasr Bechwati, N., Sisodia, R., & Sheth, J. N. (2009). Developing a Model of Antecedents to Consumers’ Perceptions and Evaluations of Price Unfairness. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 761–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ng, S., David, M. E., & Dagger, T. S. (2011). Generating Positive Word-of-Mouth in the Service Experience. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 21(2), 133–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nielsen Global Survey of Trust in Advertising. (2013). Global Trust in Advertising and Branding Strategies. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  57. Normann, R. (2000). Service Management Strategy and Leadership in Service Business (3rd ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  58. Nyer, P. U. (2000). An Investigation into Whether Complaining Can Cause Increase Consumer Satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17, 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ojasalo, J. (1999). Quality Dynamics in Professional Services. Helsinki: The Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration.Google Scholar
  60. Ojasalo, J. (2001). Managing Customer Expectations in Professional Services. Managing Service Quality, 11(3), 200–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Oliver, R. L., Rust, R. T., & Varki, S. (1997). Customer Delight: Foundations, Findings and Managerial Insights. Journal of Retailing, 73(3), 311–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Olivier, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  63. Parowicz, I. (2015). Marketing of Heritage Conservation Services Based on the Example of the Maltese Conservation Market (Habilitation dissertation). Frankfurt (Oder): European University Viadrina.Google Scholar
  64. Ramseook-Munhurrun, P. (2016). A Critical Incident Technique Investigation of Customers’ Waiting Experiences in Service Encounters. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 26(3), 246–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Richins, M. L. (1987). A Multivariate Analysis of Responses to Dissatisfaction. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 15(3), 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Robledo, M. A. (2001). Measuring and Managing Service Quality: Integrating Customer Expectations. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 11(1), 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rogoziński, K. (2000). Nowy marketing usług. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej.Google Scholar
  68. Rust, R. T., & Bhalla, G. (2010). Customer Equity. In P. P. Maglio, C. A. Kieliszewski, & J. C. Spohrer (Eds.), Handbook of Service Science. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Rust, T., & Oliver, R. L. (2000). Should We Delight the Customer? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sahin, C. (2011). Managing Professional Service Firms: Role of Managerial Abilities. Journal of Management Development, 30(4), 413–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sawczuk, B. (2010). Marketing & Selling Professional Services in Architecture & Construction. Chichester/Ames: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  72. Schlegelmilch, B., Carman, J., & Moore, S. A. (1992). Choice and Perceived Quality of Family Practitioners in the United States and the United Kingdom. The Service Industries Journal, 12, 263–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schneider, B., & Bowen, D. E. (2010). Winning the Service Game. In P. P. Maglio, C. A. Kieliszewski, & J. C. Spohrer (Eds.), Handbook of Service Science. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  74. Schoefer, K., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2008). The Role of Emotions in Translating Perceptions of (In)Justice Into Postcomplaint Behavioral Responses. Journal of Service Research, 11(1), 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sernovitz, A. (2009). Word-of-Mouth Marketing. How Smart Companies Get People Talking. New York: Kaplan Publishing.Google Scholar
  76. Shamir, B. (1980). Service and Servility. Role Conflict in Subordinate Service Roles. Human Resources, 33(10), 741–756.Google Scholar
  77. Sheu, C., McHaney, R., & Babbar, S. (2003). Service Process Design Flexibility and Customer Waiting Time. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(8), 901–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Silverman, G. (2001). The Secrets of Word-of-Mouth Marketing. How to Trigger Exponential Sales Through Runaway Word-of-Mouth. New York: American Management Association.Google Scholar
  79. Smith, L., Wetherell, M., & Campbell, G. (Eds.). (2018). Emotion, Affective Practices, and the Past in the Present. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. Stauss, B., & Hoffmann, F. (2012). Employee Communication in Internal Marketing. In B. Lewis & R. Varey (Eds.), Internal Marketing: Directions for Management. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Strombeck, S., & Wakefield, K. (2008). Situational Influences on Service Quality Evaluations. Journal of Services Marketing, 22(5), 409–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sweeney, J. C., Soutar, G. N., & Mazzarol, T. (2007). The Differences Between Positive and Negative Word-of-Mouth—Emotion as a Differentiator? In S. Gopalan & N. Taher (Eds.), Viral Marketing: Concepts and Cases. Dehradun: Icfai University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Taylor, S. (1994). Waiting for Service: The Relationship Between Delays and Evaluations of Service. Journal of Marketing, 58, 56–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ueltschy, L. C., Laroche, M., Eggert, A., & Bindl, U. (2007). Service Quality and Satisfaction: An International Comparison of Professional Services Perceptions. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(6), 410–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Van Vaerenbergh, Y., Vermeir, I., & Lariviere, B. (2013). Service Recovery’s Impact on Customers Next-in-Line. Managing Service Quality, 23(6), 495–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Voorhees, C., Baker, J., Bourdeau, B., Brocato, E., & Cronin, J. (2009). Moderating the Relationship Among Perceived Waiting Time Anger and Regret. Journal of Service Research, 12(2), 138–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wangenheim, F. v., & Bayón, T. (2007). Behavioral Consequences of Overbooking Service Capacity. Journal of Marketing, 71, 36–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Woodruffe, H. (1995). Services Marketing. London: M&E Pitman Publishing.Google Scholar
  89. Yap, K. B., & Sweeney, J. C. (2007). Zone-of-Tolerance Moderates the Service Quality-Outcome Relationship. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(2), 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yi, S., & Ahn, J.-H. (2017). Managing Initial Expectations When Word-of-Mouth Matters. Effects of Product Value and Consumer Heterogeneity. European Journal of Marketing, 51(1), 123–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Young, L. (2005). Marketing the Professional Services Firm. Applying the Principles and the Science of Marketing to the Professions. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  92. Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1993). The Nature and Determinants of Customer Expectations of Service. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 21(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zourrig, H., & Chebat, J. (2009). Waiting in a Queue with Strangers and Acquaintances: An Integrative Model of Customer-to-Customer Interactions Effect on Waiting Time Evaluation. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 1(2), 145–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Izabella Parowicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Strategies for European Cultural HeritageEuropean University ViadrinaFrankfurt (Oder)Germany

Personalised recommendations