Advertisement

Are Cognitive Habits in the Intellect? Durand of St.-Pourçain and Prosper de Reggio Emilia on Cognitive Habits

  • Peter John HartmanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Historical-Analytical Studies on Nature, Mind and Action book series (HSNA, volume 7)

Abstract

Once Socrates has thought something, he comes to acquire an item such that he is then able to think such thoughts again when he wants, and he can, all other things being equal, do this with more ease than he could before. This item that he comes to acquire medieval philosophers called a cognitive habit. Most medieval philosophers maintained this item was a new quality added to Socrates’s intellect. However, some disagreed. In this paper, I will examine an interesting alternative theory put forward by Durand of Saint-Pourçain and Prosper de Reggio Emilia about the location of cognitive habits. On their view, cognitive habits are not to be located in the intellect but in something on the side of the body or sensitive soul.

Keywords

Durand of St-Pourçain Prosper de Reggio Emilia Intellectual habits Cognitive habits Cognitive acts Relations 

References

Manuscripts

  1. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale 12330: Durand of St.-Pourçain. Sentences. L. III. D. 23.Google Scholar
  2. Vatican, lat. 1076: Durand of St.-Pourçain. Tractatus de habitibus. Q. 5; Prosper de Reggio Emilia. Quaestiones super libros quatuor sententiarum.Google Scholar
  3. Vatican, lat.1086: Durand of St.-Pourçain. Tractatus de habitibus. Q. 5; quaestio “De subiecto virtutum moralium”; Prosper de Reggio Emilia. Quaestiones super libros quatuor sententiarum.Google Scholar

Primary Literature

  1. Durand of St.-Pourçain. 1571. In Petri Lombardi sententias theologicas commentariorum libri IIII. Venice: ex typographica Guerraea.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 1930. Tractatus de habitibus. Q. 4, ed. Joseph Koch. Opuscula et Textus 8. Münster: Aschendorff. (= TDH).Google Scholar
  3. ———. 1963. Tractatus de habitibus. Qq. 1–3, ed. Takeshira Takada. Tokyo: [s.n.] (= TDH).Google Scholar
  4. ———. 1965. Quodlibeta Avenionensia tria, additis correctionibus Hervei Natalis supra dicta Durandi in primo Quodlibet, ed. Prospero T. Stella. Textus et studia in historiam scholasticae cura pontificii Athenaei Salesiani, 152–159. Zürich: Pas Verlag.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 2012. Durandi de Sancto Porciano Scriptum super IV libros Sententiarum. Distinctiones 1–5 libri secundi, ed. Fiorella Retucci. Recherches de théologie et philosophie médiévales. Biblioteca 10.2.1. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  6. Francisco Suárez. 1861. Disputationes metaphysicae, ed. Carolus Berton. 2 vols. Opera Omnia 25–26. Paris: Vivès. Reprint: Hildesheim: Olms, 1965.Google Scholar
  7. Godfrey of Fontaines. 1932. Les quodlibets onze-quatorze de Godefroid de Fontaines, ed. Jean Hoffmans. Les Philosophes Belges 5. Louvain: Institut Supérieur de Philosophie.Google Scholar
  8. Hervaeus Natalis. 1513. Quodlibeta et tractatus VIII. Venice: per Georgium Arrivabenum. Reprint: Ridgewood, NJ: Gregg Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  9. John Duns Scotus. 1950. Ioannis Duns Scoti opera omnia, ed. Carolus Balić et al. 21 vols. Vatican City: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis.Google Scholar
  10. Peter of Palude. 1517. Tertium scriptum super tertium sententiarum, ed. Petrus a Novimagio. Paris: apud C. Chevallon.Google Scholar
  11. Thomas Aquinas. 1929. Scriptum super libros Sententiarum Magistri Petri Lombardi episcopi parisiensis, ed. Pierre Mandonnet [books I and II] and Maria Fabianus Moos [books III and IV], vol. 4, 1929–1956. Paris: Lethielleux.Google Scholar
  12. Thomas de Vio Cajetan. 1892. Commentaria in Summam theologiam, ed. H. Prosper. Lyrae: Joseph van In. Reprinted in Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae, Leonina 4–12.Google Scholar

Secondary Literature

  1. Courtenay, William. 2007. Reflections on Vat. lat. 1086 and Prosper of Reggio Emilia, O.E.S.A. In Theological Quodlibeta in the Middle Ages. The Fourteenth Century, ed. Chris Schabel, vol. 2, 345–358. Brill’s Companion to the Christian Tradition 7. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  2. Cross, Richard. 2014. Duns Scotus’s theory of cognition. Oxford: OUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Decker, Bruno. 1967. Die Gotteslehre des Jakob von Metz. Untersuchungen zur Dominikanertheologie zu Beginn des 14. Jahrhunderts, BGPTM 42. Münster: Aschendorff.Google Scholar
  4. Dewender, Thomas. 2009. Der ontologische Status der Relationen nach Durandus von St.-Pourcain, Hervaeus Natalis und Petrus Aureoli. In Philosophical Debates at Paris in the Early Fourteenth Century, Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters 102, ed. S. Brown, T. Kobusch, and T. Dewender, 287–307. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  5. Fumagalli, Maria. 1969. Durando di S. Porziano. Elementi filosofici della terza redazione del Commento alle Sentenze. Florence: La Nuova Italia.Google Scholar
  6. Hartman, Peter. 2011. Durand of St.-Pourçain on cognitive acts: Their cause, ontological status, and intentional character. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2013. Thomas Aquinas and Durand of St.-Pourçain on mental representation. History of Philosophy Quarterly 30(1): 19–34.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 2014. Causation and cognition: Durand of St.-Pourçain and Godfrey of Fontaines on the cause of a cognitive act. In Durandus and His Sentences Commentary: Historical, Philosophical and Theological Issues, ed. A. Speer et al., 229–256. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 2017. Durand of St.-Pourçain and Cognitive Habitus (Sentences commentary A/B 3.23.1-2). In The Language of Thought in Late Medieval Philosophy. Essays in Honor of Claude Panaccio, ed. Jenny Pelletier and Magali Roques, 331–368. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henninger, Mark. 1989. Relations: Medieval Theories, 1250–1325. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Iribarren, Isabel. 2002. Some points of contention in Medieval trinitarian theology: The case of Durandus of Saint-Pourçain in the early fourteenth century. Traditio 57: 289–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ———. 2005. Durandus of St. Pourçain: A Dominican Theologian in the Shadow of Aquinas. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 2008. La christologie de Durand de Saint-Pourçain dans le contexte de l’émergence du thomisme au XIVème siècle. Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques 92: 241–256.Google Scholar
  14. Koch, Josef. 1927. Durandus de S. Porciano O.P. Forschungen zum Streit um Thomas von Aquin zu Beginn des 14. Jahrhunderts. Münster: Aschendorff.Google Scholar
  15. Müller, Hermann. 1968. Die Lehre vom verbum mentis in der spanischen Scholastik. Untersuchungen zur historischen Entwicklung und zum Verständnis dieser Lehre bei Toletus, den Conimbricensern und Suarez. Ph.D. Dissertation, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität.Google Scholar
  16. Panaccio, Claude. 2004. Ockham on Concepts. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  17. Pelster, Franz. 1922. Thomas von Sutton: ein Oxforder Verteidiger der thomistischen Lehre. Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 46 (212–253): 361–401.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 1928. Prosper de Reggio Emilia, des Ermites de Saint-Augustin, et le manuscrit latin 1086 de la Bibliothèque Vaticane. Revue néo-scolastique de philosophie 19: 316–351.Google Scholar
  19. Pini, Giorgio. 2015. Two models of thinking: Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus. In Intentionality, Cognition and Mental Representation in Medieval Philosophy, ed. G. Klima, 81–103. New York: Fordham University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Robert, Aurélien. 2016. John of Jandun on relations and Cambridge changes. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (3): 490–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schabel, Chris, Russell Friedman, and Irene Balcoyiannopoulou. 2001. Peter of Palude and the Parisian reaction to Durand of St Pourçain on future contingents. Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum 71: 183–300.Google Scholar
  22. Schönberger, Rolf. 1994. Relation als Vergleich. Die Relationstheorie des Johannes Buridan im Kontext seines Denkens und der Scholastik. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  23. Solère, Jean-Luc. 2013. Durand of Saint-Pourçain’s cognition theory: Its fundamental principles. In Medieval perspectives on Aristotle’s De Anima, ed. M. Counet and R. Friedman, 185–248. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2014. Sine qua non causality and the context of Durand’s early theory of cognition. In Durandus and his sentences commentary: Historical, philosophical and theological issues, ed. A. Speer et al., 185–227. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  25. Wippel, John. 2007. Godfrey of Fontaines’ Quodlibet XIV on justice as a general virtue: Is it really a Quodlibet? In Theological Quodlibeta in the Middle Ages. The fourteenth century, ed. Chris Schabel, vol. 2, 287–344. Brill’s companion to the Christian tradition 7. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyLoyola University ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations