Standardization of Whole Life Cost Estimation for Early Design Decision-Making Utilizing BIM

  • Mariangela ZanniEmail author
  • Tim Sharpe
  • Philipp Lammers
  • Leo Arnold
  • James Pickard
Conference paper


It is becoming increasingly clear that there is a gap between the expected and actual performance of buildings. A growing body of evidence suggests that the most common barrier to achieving design intent is the absence of comprehensive information during design and construction stages, leading to poor decision-making which impacts on performance and Whole Life Cost (WLC). Building Information Modelling (BIM) has the potential to facilitate a more comprehensive and accurate design approach from the early stages. A detailed and accurate model can allow designers and clients to understand the wider impacts of design changes, and to track this information through construction stages. However, dependencies between design decisions and WLC have yet to be understood. This paper is based on a project that focuses on the Private Rental Sector (PRS), which is the fastest growing new sector in the UK housing market, also known as Build-to-Rent (BTR). The study adopts a mixed method approach for the development and validation of a structured standardised process for more accurate WLC estimation through BIM. As a result, the main problems in WLC BIM management are identified, and coordinated into a reverse-engineered systematic process that uses the Integrated DEFinition (IDEF) 3 structured diagramming modelling technique, and the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) as a basis for large dataset management. The research outputs aim to enhance BIM lifecycle management through a smart decision-making approach that is integral to the natural design development process.


Building information modelling (BIM) Process modelling nD modelling Whole life cost (WLC) Integrated definition (IDEF) language 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariangela Zanni
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tim Sharpe
    • 2
  • Philipp Lammers
    • 1
  • Leo Arnold
    • 1
  • James Pickard
    • 1
  1. 1.Cartwright PickardLondonUK
  2. 2.Glasgow School of ArtGlasgowUK

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