Advertisement

Logic and Language

  • Joseph Agassi
Chapter
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 401)

Abstract

The great change at the turn of the twentieth century, in philosophy in general and in logic in particular, was the transition from the view of logic as the logic of science – of proven informative truths – to the view of logic as the logic of formal languages – of correct speech, of following grammar. In artificial systems, the rules of grammar are worded in advance; proper formulas – strings of words are well-formed (wff), and then they are true or false (Frege), within the language to which they belong (Tarski). For natural languages this holds only partially; they are given and their grammars are only partially given; and so is synonymy within them (Tarski; Quine). This was progress, as it led from the old concern with concepts to the new concern with statements and contexts. Yet the progress caused some regress: the traditional center of logic with inferences shifted to a concern with tautologies. This led analytic philosophy away from formal logic. It returned to logic, only partly under the influence of Wittgenstein, since his later philosophy was concerned with fragments of language and neither with language as such nor with its global problems, whereas the concern with logic is global by definition. Wittgenstein expressed concern for this – repeatedly and on diverse occasions.

References

  1. Agassi, J. (1963). Empiricism vs. inductivism. Philosophical Studies, 14, 85–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agassi, J. (1981a). The secret of Carnap. Review of Jaakko Hintikka. Rudolf Carnap, Logical Empiricist, Materials and Perspectives, Philosophia, 10, 57–88.Google Scholar
  3. Agassi, J. (1981b). Science and society. Dordrecht/Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  4. Agassi, J. (2005). To renew a rational debate. Iyyun, 54, 317–323.Google Scholar
  5. Boole, G. (1854). An investigation of the laws of thought. Google Scholar
  6. Bunge, M. (1979a). Treatise on basic philosophy, 3: Ontology I: The furniture of the world. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bunge, M. (1979b). Treatise on basic philosophy, 4: Ontology II: A world of systems. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carnap, R. ([1928] 1967). The logical structure of the world and pseudo-problems in philosophy (Der Logische Aufbau der Welt und Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie). London: Routledge & Kegan PaulGoogle Scholar
  9. Carter, W. R. (1989). The elements of metaphysics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dummett, M. (1978). Truth and other enigmas. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  11. Edwards, P. (1967). The encyclopedia of philosophy (Vol. 4). London: Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hager, P. J. (2012). Continuity and change in the development of Russell’s philosophy. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  13. Harman, P. M. (2001). The natural philosophy of James Clerk Maxwell. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hempel, C. G. (1965). Aspects of scientific explanation and other essays in the philosophy of science. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hintikka, J. (1993). On proper (Popper?) and improper uses of information in epistemology. Theoria, 59, 158–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kluge, W. H. (2013). The metaphysics of Gottlob Frege: An essay in ontological reconstruction. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  17. Lejewski, C. (1954). Logic and existence. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 5, 104–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Monk, R. (1996). Bertrand Russell, 1872–1921: The spirit of solitude. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  19. Monk, R. (2000). Bertrand Russell, 1921–70: The ghost of madness. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
  20. Monk, R. (2001). Philosophical biography: The very idea. In Klagge 2001, pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  21. Pepper, S. C. (1942). World hypotheses: A study in evidence. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  22. Popper, K. ([1935] 1959). The logic of scientific discovery. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  23. Quine, W. Van O. (1967). Russell’s ontological development. The Journal of Philosophy, 21, 657–667.Google Scholar
  24. Quine, W. Van O. (1988). A comment on Agassi’s remarks. Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, 19, 117–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Russell, B. (1900). A critical exposition of the philosophy of Leibniz. London: Geo. Allen & Unwin Ltd.Google Scholar
  26. Russell, B. (1905). On denoting. Mind, 14, 479–493 reprinted in his 1956a, 39–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Russell, B. (1912). Problems of philosophy. New York: H. Holt.Google Scholar
  28. Russell, B. (1940). An inquiry into meaning & truth. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  29. Russell, B. (1956a). Logic and knowledge. London: G. Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  30. Smit, H. (2015). Popper and Wittgenstein on the metaphysics of experience. Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, 46, 319–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tait, W. W. (1997a). Early analytic philosophy: Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein: Essays in honor of Leonard Linsky. Chicago: Open Court.Google Scholar
  32. Tait, W. W. (1997b). Frege versus cantor and Dedekind: On the concept of number. In Tait 1997, pp. 70–113.Google Scholar
  33. van Brakel, J. (1994). The Ignis Fatuus of semantic Universalia: The case of colours. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 45, 770–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wettersten, J. R. (1995). Preliminary report on efforts of Psychologism to gain influence in proper epistemological, methodological and psychological societies. In Jarvie & Laor, 1995, pp. 129–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Whately, R. (1826). Elements of logic.Google Scholar
  36. Whittaker, E. T. (1949). From Euclid to Eddington: A study of conceptions of the external world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Williamson, T. (2002). Vagueness. Aldershot: Ashgate/Dartmouth.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wittgenstein, L. (1958). The blue and Brown books. Pittsboro: InteLex Corp.Google Scholar
  39. Wittgenstein, L. (1975). Lectures on the foundations of mathematics, Cambridge, 1939. Edited by Cora diamond from the notes of R. G. Bosanquet, Norman Malcolm, Rush Rhees, & Yorick Smythies.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Agassi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations