Municipal and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

  • Vivek RanaEmail author
  • Subodh Kumar Maiti
Part of the Concepts and Strategies in Plant Sciences book series (CSPS)


High rate of urbanization and industrialization in recent years is generating very large amount of wastewater. Inadequate wastewater treatment options may lead to the discharge of untreated wastewaters (containing organic matter, inorganic and organic chemicals, toxic substances, and disease-causing agents) into the aquatic environment, thereby deteriorating their quality. These toxic chemicals such as heavy metals draw our concern towards their remediation due to their harmful effect on human metabolism and ecosystem as a result of their high persistence in the environment. Constructed wetlands are being widely used for treating many classes of contaminants such as heavy metals, domestic and industrial wastewater, textile dye effluents, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosives, radionuclides, etc. This treatment method overcomes the shortcomings of conventional wastewater treatment methods as it is a cost-effective, non-intrusive and eco-centric technology. This chapter reviews and provides an insight into constructed wetland technology employed for efficient remediation of difficult-to-treat wastewaters.


Constructed wetlands Environmental pollution Industrial wastewater treatment Phytoremediation 



Biochemical Oxygen Demand


Chemical Oxygen Demand


Constructed Wetlands


Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands


Hydraulic Retention Time


Horizontal Sub-surface Flow Constructed Wetland


Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland


Sewage Treatment Plants


Total Organic Carbon


Total Suspended Solids


Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland


Vertical Sub-surface Flow Constructed Wetlands


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Quality Management DivisionCentral Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate ChangeDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

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