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Municipal and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

  • Vivek RanaEmail author
  • Subodh Kumar Maiti
Chapter
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Part of the Concepts and Strategies in Plant Sciences book series (CSPS)

Abstract

High rate of urbanization and industrialization in recent years is generating very large amount of wastewater. Inadequate wastewater treatment options may lead to the discharge of untreated wastewaters (containing organic matter, inorganic and organic chemicals, toxic substances, and disease-causing agents) into the aquatic environment, thereby deteriorating their quality. These toxic chemicals such as heavy metals draw our concern towards their remediation due to their harmful effect on human metabolism and ecosystem as a result of their high persistence in the environment. Constructed wetlands are being widely used for treating many classes of contaminants such as heavy metals, domestic and industrial wastewater, textile dye effluents, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosives, radionuclides, etc. This treatment method overcomes the shortcomings of conventional wastewater treatment methods as it is a cost-effective, non-intrusive and eco-centric technology. This chapter reviews and provides an insight into constructed wetland technology employed for efficient remediation of difficult-to-treat wastewaters.

Keywords

Constructed wetlands Environmental pollution Industrial wastewater treatment Phytoremediation 

Abbreviations

BOD

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

COD

Chemical Oxygen Demand

CW

Constructed Wetlands

FWSCW

Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands

HRT

Hydraulic Retention Time

HSSFCW

Horizontal Sub-surface Flow Constructed Wetland

SSFCW

Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland

STP

Sewage Treatment Plants

TOC

Total Organic Carbon

TSS

Total Suspended Solids

VFCW

Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland

VSSFCW

Vertical Sub-surface Flow Constructed Wetlands

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Quality Management DivisionCentral Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate ChangeDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

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