Clinical Diagnosis

  • Alberto Borges Peixoto
  • Laudelino Marques Lopes
  • Edward Araujo Júnior


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common condition with high rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Due to the wide variety of clinical presentations, however, the exact definition and the best management of FGR remain elusive. Assessment based on maternal clinical history, measurement of symphysis-fundal height (SFH), obstetric ultrasonography, or a combination of the latter two appears to be an adequate tool for screening FGR in low-risk and unselected populations. At the same time, many underdeveloped or developing countries do not have access to ultrasonography to reliably determine the gestational age and assess fetal growth. Thus, SFH measurement is a noninvasive test that can be used to screen patients at high risk of FGR.


Symphysis-fundal height Fetal growth restriction Small for gestational age Gestational age 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Borges Peixoto
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Laudelino Marques Lopes
    • 4
  • Edward Araujo Júnior
    • 1
  1. 1.Discipline of Fetal Medicine, Department of ObstetricsPaulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Discipline of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Uberaba (UNIUBE)UberabaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyFederal University of Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM)UberabaBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologySchulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

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