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Biochemical Assessment of Placental Function

  • Irene Martín-Estal
  • Miguel Angel Rodriguez-Zambrano
  • Inma Castilla-Cortázar
Chapter

Abstract

The placenta is a key organ in pregnancy because during this period it supports normal fetal growth and development. The placenta is responsible for nutrient and oxygen transport to the fetus and also secretes several hormones and growth factors important for fetal development. An alteration in placental functions or development could lead to pregnancy disorders (preeclampsia, FGR, miscarriage, and gestational diabetes, among others). It is known that the placenta alters the expression levels of several placental biomarkers, “opening a door” to the study of such concentrations as prognostic factors of the aforementioned pregnancy disorders. Until now, although different placental biomarkers have been associated with pregnancy syndromes, no biomarker has been effectively used in clinical practice to diagnose and predict such diseases.

Keywords

Placental dysfunction Placental biomarkers Fetal growth restriction Intrauterine environment Pregnancy disorders 

Abbreviations

ADAM12

A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12

AFP

A-fetoprotein

AGEs

Advanced glycation end products

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

FGR

Fetal growth restriction

GDM

Gestational diabetes mellitus

GLUTs

Glucose transporters

GRP78

Glucose-regulated protein 78

HbA

Maternal hemoglobin

HbF

Fetal hemoglobin

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

HIF-1

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1

Hsp70

Heat shock protein 70

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor-1

IGF-2

Insulin-like growth factor-2

IGFBPs

Insulin-like binding proteins

IGFs

Insulin-like growth factors

LDLs

Low-density lipoproteins

LGA

Large for gestational age

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

NO

Nitric oxide

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

NTDs

Neural tube defects

PAPP-A

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

pGF

Placental growth factor

pGH

Placental growth hormone

pL

Placental lactogen

pO2

Partial pressure of oxygen

PP13

Placental protein 13

PSG1

Glycosylated pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1

PTH-rP

Parathyroid hormone-related protein

RAAS

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

RFM

Reduced fetal movements

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

sENG

Soluble endoglin

sFLT1/sVEGFR-1

Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 or soluble VEGF receptor-1

SGA

Small for gestational age

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

β-hCG

β-Human chorionic gonadotropin

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irene Martín-Estal
    • 1
  • Miguel Angel Rodriguez-Zambrano
    • 2
  • Inma Castilla-Cortázar
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Tecnologico de MonterreyEscuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la SaludMonterreyMexico
  2. 2.Fundacion de Investigacion HM HospitalesMadridSpain

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