• Talita Micheletti Helfer
  • Elisenda Eixarch
  • Francesc Figueras
  • Eduard Gratacós


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a complication commonly associated with several adverse outcomes. Standardized classification of the condition is important not only for the management but also for epidemiological and research purposes. Classification can be based on the onset, if early or late in pregnancy. Specialists agree that the demarcation should be gestational age at diagnosis before or after 32 weeks. Such classification differentiates two phenotypes determined by the severity of placental disease and the adaptive response and deterioration. From a clinical perspective, though, it is helpful to classify small fetuses in stages according to indices or signs that associate with similar risks and prognosis. This approach indicates follow-up intervals, timing of delivery, and other management strategies, depending on the stratification of risk. The application of protocols contributes to optimizing clinical management and outcomes in FGR.


Fetal growth restriction Classification Early onset Late onset Small for gestational age 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Talita Micheletti Helfer
    • 1
  • Elisenda Eixarch
    • 2
  • Francesc Figueras
    • 2
  • Eduard Gratacós
    • 2
  1. 1.Fetal i+D Fetal Medicine Research Center, BCNatal | Barcelona Center for Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - Hospital Clínic and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, IDIBAPSUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Fetal i+D Fetal Medicine Research Center, BCNatal | Barcelona Center for Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - Hospital Clínic and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, IDIBAPS University of Barcelona and Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBER-ER)BarcelonaSpain

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