Clinical Treatment

  • Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza
  • Ana Carolina Rabachini Caetano
  • Ana Cristina Perez Zamarian


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurs when the fetus does not reach its intrauterine potential for growth and development as a result of compromise in placental function. FGR affects 5–10% of pregnancies and is the second leading cause of perinatal mortality, responsible for approximately 30% of stillbirths and for increasing the frequency of premature births and intrapartum asphyxia. Unfortunately, no effective therapy is currently available to reverse or at least interrupt the progressive course of placental insufficiency. Nutrition in early life and other exogenous factors like vitamin D and omega-3 have been recognized to play a key role in the pathogenesis of and predisposition to diseases, which seem to go on to subsequent generations. Bed rest in FGR has no benefits proven by scientific evidence and is inconvenient to patients and their families. Sildenafil, nitric oxide, and statins have emerged as treatment options to be implemented. Gene therapy with VEGF and nanotechnology may play a major part in the future with more and multicenter studies.


Fetal growth restriction Omega-3 Vitamin D Sildenafil Nitric oxide Statins Nanotechnology Gene therapy VEGF 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza
    • 1
  • Ana Carolina Rabachini Caetano
    • 1
  • Ana Cristina Perez Zamarian
    • 1
  1. 1.Discipline of Fetal Medicine, Department of ObstetricsPaulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil

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