Reducing the Computational Complexity of the Reference-Sharing Based Self-embedding Watermarking Approach

  • Dongmei Niu
  • Hongxia WangEmail author
  • Minquan Cheng
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11068)


Reference-sharing based self-embedding watermarking schemes had been shown to be an effective way to avoid the tampering coincidence and the reference waste problems. Typical reference-sharing based schemes adopt pseudo-random binary matrices as the encoding matrices to generate the reference information. This paper investigate to reduce the computational complexity of the reference-sharing based self-embedding watermarking approach by using the sparse binary matrices as the encoding matrices. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed approach can reduce the computational complexity significantly while maintaining the same tampering restoration capability as the traditional.


Self-embedding watermarking Computational complexity Tamper detection and recovery Sparse matrices 



This research is supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (No. U1536110).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Southwest University of Science and TechnologyMianyangChina
  3. 3.Guangxi Normal UniversityGuilinChina

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