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Grippe sévère

  • N. Bréchot
  • C.-E. Luyt
  • J.-L. Trouillet
  • J. Chastre
  • A. CombesEmail author
Chapter
  • 866 Downloads
Part of the Références en réanimation. Collection de la SRLF book series (SRLF)

Résumé

Les virus de la grippe (Myxovirus influenzae) sont des virus à ARN, appartenant au genre des Influenzavirus. Ils sont classés en trois groupes : A, B et C, suivant l’antigénicité de leurs nucléoprotéines. Les virus des groupes A et B, possédant une structure proche, sont recouverts de deux glycoprotéines de surface, l’hémagglutinine (H) et la neuraminidase (N). L’hémagglutinine, très immunogène, est impliquée dans la fixation du virus sur l’arbre bronchique, tandis que la neuraminidase est responsable de la dissémination du virus, en libérant les particules virales néoformées. Les virus de type A possèdent différentes présentations antigéniques, et sont classés selon leurs protéines de surface H et N [1]. Au cours du dernier siècle, les épidémies de grippe chez l’homme ont été causées par des virus de types A (H1N1 et H3N2 principalement) et B, en proportions variables suivant les années [2, 3]. Le virus pandémique A H1N1 apparu en 1918 a été responsable de la pandémie la plus sévère, avec plusieurs dizaines de millions de décès induits dans les 3 années suivantes [2]. Le virus C n’est lui responsable que de cas sporadiques d’expression le plus souvent modérée. Ces virus grippaux ont une forte propension au réassortiment génétique, responsable de phénomènes de glissement antigénique (mutations de gènes entraînant des mutations mineures du virus) ou des cassures antigéniques (réassortiment de gènes entraînant des modifications plus importantes).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Paris 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Bréchot
    • 1
  • C.-E. Luyt
    • 1
  • J.-L. Trouillet
    • 1
  • J. Chastre
    • 1
  • A. Combes
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Service de réanimation médicale iCAN, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition Institut de Cardiologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-SalpêtrièreUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6Paris cedex 13France

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