Advertisement

Prognosis of childhood migraine

  • Donald W. Lewis

Abstract

The long term prognosis of adolescents with migraine has not been well studied. Five to seven year follow up studies revealed that 20–25% of adolescents originally diagnosed with migraine have remission of symptoms, 50–60% have persistence of their migraine with aura and 25% converting to TTH. Of those originally with TTH, 20% converted to migraine [121,122]. Monastero et al. evaluated 55 adolescents with migraine who were available for ten year follow up and found that 42% had persistent migraine, 38% had experienced remission, and 20% had transformed to TTH. Interestingly, only migraine without aura persisted through the ten year follow up whereas other migrainous disorders and nonclassifiable headaches did not [123]. The longest follow up available came from Brna et al, with 20 year information on 60 out of an original cohort of 95 from 1983. Of the 60, 27% were headache free, 33% had TTH, 17% had migraine and 23% had both TTH and migraine. Of those with persistent headache, 80% described their headaches as moderate to severe, although an overall improvement was described in 66%. TTH was more likely to remit. Headache severity at diagnosis was the most predictive of headache outcome at 20 years [124]. These data indicate that female gender, migraine severity at diagnosis, and longer duration from time of onset of headache until time of initial medical examination tended toward unfavorable prognosis.

Keywords

Migraine With Aura Headache Severity Original Cohort Unfavorable Prognosis Migraine Without Aura 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Bigal ME, Lipton RB. The prognosis of migraine. Curr Opin Neurol 2008; 21:301–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Olesen J, Headache Classification Subcommittee. The international classification of headache disorders (ICHD-2). Cephalalgia 2004; 24 (supplement 1):1–151.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rothner AD. The evaluation of Headaches in Children and Adolescents. Semin Pediatr Neurol 1995; 2:109–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ferrari A, Spaccapelo L, Gallesi A, Sternieri E. Focus on headache as an adverse reaction to drugs. J Headache Pain 2009; 10:235–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    The Childhood Brain Tumor Consortium. The epidemiology of headache among children with brain tumors. Headache in children with brain tumors. J Neurooncol 1991; 10:31–46.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lewis DW, Ashwal S, Dahl G, et al. Practice parameter: evaluation of children and adolescents with recurrent headaches: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2002; 59:490–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sargent JD, Solbach P. Medical evaluation of migraineurs: review of the value of laboratory and radiologic tests. Headache 1983; 23:62–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen JH, Wang PJ, Young C, et al. Etiological classification of chronic headache in children and their electroencephalographic features. Zhonghua Min Guo Xiao Er Ke Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi 1994; 35:397–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kramer U, Nevo Y, Harel S. Electroencephalography in the evaluation of headache patients: a review. Isr J Med Sci 1997; 33:816–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Whitehouse D, Pappas JA, Escala PH, Livingston S. Electroencephalographic changes in children with migraine. New Engl J Med 1967; 27:23–27.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kinast M, Lueders H, Rothner AD, Erenberg G. Benign focal epileptiform discharges in childhood migraine (BFEDC). Neurology 1982; 32:1309–1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ziegler DK, Wong G Jr. Migraine in children: clinical and electroencephalographic study of families: the possible relation to epilepsy. Epilepsia 1967; 8:171–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aysun S, Yetük M. Clinical experience on headache in children: analysis of 92 cases. J Child Neurol 1998; 13:202–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Prensky AL, Sommer D. Diagnosis and treatment of migraine in children. Neurology 1979; 29:506–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Froelich WA, Carter CC, O’Leary JL, Rosenbaum HE. Headache in childhood. Electroencephalographic evaluation of 500 cases. Neurology 1960; 10:639–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Practice parameter: the utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of headache in patients with normal neurologic examinations (summary statement). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1994; 44:1353–1354.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maytal J, Bienkowski RS, Patel M, Eviatar L. The value of brain imaging in children with headaches. Pediatrics 1995; 96:413–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Medina LS, Pinter JD, Zurakowski D et al. Children with headache: clinical predictors of the surgical space-occupying lesions and the role of neuroimaging. Radiology 1997; 202:819–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dooley JM, Camfield PR, O’Neill M, Vohra A. The value of CT scans for children with headaches. Can J Neurol Sci 1990; 17:309–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wöber-Bingöl C, Wöber C, Prayer D, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging for recurrent headache in childhood and adolescence. Headache 1996; 36:83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chu ML, Shinnar S. Headaches in children younger than 7 years of age. Arch Neurol 1992; 49:79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lewis DW, Dorbad D. The utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of children with migraine or chronic daily headache who have normal neurological examinations. Headache 2000; 40:629–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Medina LS, Kuntz KM, Pomeroy SL. Children with headache suspected of having a brain tumor: a cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnostic strategies. Pediatrics 2001; 108:255–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bille BS. Migraine in school children. A study of the incidence and short-term prognosis, and a clinical, psychological and electroencephalographic comparison between children with migraine and matched controls. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1962; 136:1–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Deubner DC. An epidemiologic study of migraine and headache in 10–20 year olds. Headache 1977; 17:173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sillanpää M. Changes in the prevalence of migraine and other headache during the first seven school years. Headache 1983; 23:15–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dalsgaard-Nielsen T. Some aspects of the epidemiology of migraine in Denmark. Headache 1970; 10:14–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stewart WF, Linet MS, Celentano DD, et al. Age and sex-specific incidence rates of migraine with and without visual aura. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 34:1111–1120.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lipton RB, Silberstein SD, Stewart WF. An update on the epidemiology of migraine. Headache 1994; 34:319–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mortimer MJ, Kay J, Jaron A. Epidemiology of Headache and Childhood Migraine in an Urban General Practice Using Ad Hoc, Vahlquist and IHS Criteria. Dev Med Child Neuro 1992; 34:1095–1101.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Valquist B. Migraine in children. Int Arch Allergy Appl Imunol 1955; 7:348–355.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Small P, Waters WE. Headache and migraine in a comprehensive school. In: The Epidemiology of Migraine. Edited by Waters Bracknell-Berkshire, England: Boehringer Ingelhelm, Ltd. 1974.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sillanpää M. Prevalence of migraine and other headache in Finnish children starting school. Headache 1976; 15:288–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Laurell K, Larsson B, Eeg-Olofsson O. Prevalence of headache in Swedish schoolchildren, with a focus on tension-type headache. Cephalalgia 2004; 24:380–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Celentano DD, Reed ML. Prevalence of migraine headache in the United States. JAMA 1992; 267:64–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Galletti F, Cupini LM, Corbelli I, et al. Pathophysiological basis for migraine prophylaxis. Prog Neurobiol 2009; 89:176–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hachinski VC, Porchawka J, Steele JC. Visual symptoms in the migraine syndrome. Neurology 1973; 23:570–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Parisi P, Villa MP, Pelliccia A, et al. Panayiotopoulos syndrome: diagnosis and management. Neurol Sci 2007; 28:72–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kirchmann M, Thomsen LL, Olesen J. Basilar-type migraine; clinical, epidemiologic, and genetic features. Neurololgy 2006; 66:880–886.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    DeFusco M, Marconi R, Silvestri L, et al. Haploinsufficiency of ATP1A2 encoding Na+/K+ pump alpha-2 subunit associated familial hemiplegic migraine, type 2. Nat Genet 2003; 33:192–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dichgans M, Freilinger T, Eckstein G, et al. Mutation in the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A in familial hemiplegic migraine. Lancet 2005; 366:371–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cuvellier JC, L’epine A. Childhood periodic syndromes.Pediatr Neurol 2010; 42:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Giffin NJ, Benton S, Goadsby PJ. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: four new cases and linkage to CACNA1A mutation. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002; 44:490–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Siberstein SD. Practice parameter: evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2000; 55:754–762.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Powers SW, Patton SR, Hommel KA, Hershey AD. Quality of life in childhood migraine: clinical impact and comparison to other chronic illnesses. Pediatrics 2003; 112:e1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Powers SW, Patton SR, Hommell, KA, Hershey AD. Quality of life in paediatric migraine: characterization of age-related effects using PedsQL 4.0. Cephalalgia 2004; 24:120–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Miller VA, Palermao TM, Powers SW, et al. Migraine Headaches and sleep distrurbances in children. Headache 2003; 43:362–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Köseoglu E, Akboyraz A, Soyuer A, Ersoy AO. Aerobic exercise and plasma beta endorphin levels in patients with migrainous headache without aura. Cephalalgia. 2003; 23:972–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Millichap JG, Yee MM. The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine. Pediatr Neurol 2003; 28:9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stang PE, Yanagihara PA, Swanson JW, et al. Incidence of migraine headache: a population based study in Olmsted Country, Minnesota. Neurology 1992; 42:1657–1662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Van den Bergh V, Amery WK, Waelkens J. Trigger factors in migraine: a study conducted by the Belgian Migraine Society. Headache 1987; 27:191–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    James JE. Acute and chronic effects of caffeine on performance, mood, headache, and sleep. Neuropsychobiology 1998; 38:32–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mannix LK, Frame JR, Soloman GD. Alcohol, smoking and caffeine use among headache patients. Headache 1997; 37:572–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Van Dusseldorp M, Katan M. Headache caused by caffeine withdrawal among moderate caffe drinkers switched from ordinary to decaffeinated coffee: a 12 week double-blind trial. BMJ 1990; 300:1558–1559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Trautmann E, Lackschewitz H, Kröner-Herwig B. Psychological treatment of recurrent headache in children and adolescents—a meta-analysis. Cephalalgia. 2006; 26:1411–1426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zeltzer LK, Schlank CB. Conquering Your Child’s Chronic Pain: A Pediatrician’s Guide for Reclaiming a Normal Childhood, 1st Edition. New York, USA: Harper Paperbacks, 2005.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schürks M, Diener HC, Goadsby P. Update on the prophylaxis of migraine. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2008; 10:20–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Oelkers-Ax R, Leins A, Parzer P, et al. Butterbur root extract and music therapy in the prevention of childhood migraine: an explorative study. European J Pain 2008; 12:301–313.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hershey AD, Powers SW, Vockell AL, et al. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and response to supplementation in pediatric and adolescent migraine. Headache 2007; 47:73–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lewis D, Ashwal S, Hershey A, et al. Practice parameter: pharmacological treatment of migraine headache in children and adolescents: report of the American Academy of Neurology Quality Standards Subcommittee and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2004; 63:2215–2224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Victor S, Ryan S. Drugs for preventing migraine headaches in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 4:CD002761.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lewis DW, Yonker M, Winner P, Sowell M. The treatment of pediatric migraine. Pediatr Ann 2005; 34:448–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hämäläinen ML. Migraine in children and adolescents; a guide to drug treatment. CNS Drugs 2006; 20:813–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gunner KB, Smith HD, Ferguson LE. Practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of migraine headaches in children and adolescents: part two. J Pediatr Health Care; 2008; 22:52–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Reimschisel T. Breaking the cycle of medication overuse headache. Contemporary Pediatrics 2003; 20:101.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rothner A, Guo Y. An analysis of headache types, over-the-counter (OTC) medication overuse and school absences in a pediatric/adolescent headache clinic. Headache 2004; 44:490.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Major PW, Grubisa HS, Thie NM. Triptans for the treatment of acute peditric migraine: a systematic literature review. Pediatr Neurol 2003; 29:425–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Silver S, Gano D, Gerretsen P. Acute treatment of paediatric migraine; a meta-analysis of efficacy. J Paediatr Child Health 2008; 44:3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hämäläinen ML, Hoppu K, Valkeila E, Santavuori P. Ibuprofen or acetaminophen for the acute treatment of migraine in children: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Neurology 1997; 48:103–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lewis DW, Kellstein D, Dahl G, et al. Children’s Ibuprofen Suspension for the Acute Treatment of Pediatric Migraine Headache. Headache. 2002; 42:780–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Winner P, Rothner AD, Saper J, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sumatriptan nasal spray in the treatment of acute migraine in adolescents. Pediatrics 2000; 106:989–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ahonen K, Hämäläinen ML, Rantala H, Hoppu K. Nasal sumatriptan is effective in the treatment of migraine attacks in children Neurology 2004; 62:883–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ueberall M. Sumatriptan in paediatric and adolescent migraine. Cephalalgia 2001; 21 (Suppl 1):21–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lewis DW, Winner P, Hershey AD, Wasiewski WW. Adolescent Migraine Steering Committee. Efficacy of zolmitriptan nasal spray in adolescent migraine. Pediatrics. 2007; 120:390–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ahonen K, Hämäläinen ML, Eerola M, Hoppu K. A randomized trial of rizatriptan in migraine attacks in children. Neurology. 2006; 67:1135–1140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Linder SL, Mathew NT, Cady RK, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of Almotriptan in Adolescents; A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Headache 2008; 48:1326–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Brandes JL, Kudrow D, Stark SR, et al. Sumatriptan-naproxen for acute treatment of migraine: a randomized trial. JAMA 2007; 297:1443–1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Haberer LJ, Walls CM, Lener SE, et al. Distinct pharmacokinetic profile and safety of a fixed-dose tablet of sumatriptan and naproxen sodium for the acute treatment of migraine. Headache 2010; 50:357–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Evers S, Rahmann A, Kraemer C, et al. Treatment of childhood migraine attacks with oral zolmitriptan and ibuprofen. Neurology. 2006; 67:497–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    McEnroe JD, Fleishaker JC. Clinical pharmacokinetics of almotriptan, a serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist for the treatment of migraine. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:237–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Charles JA. Almotriptan in the acute treatment of migraine in patients 11–17 years old: an open-label pilot study of efficacy and safety. Headache Pain 2006; 7:95–7.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Berenson F, Vasconcellos E, Pakalnis A, et al. Long-term, open-label safety study of oral almotriptan 12.5 mg for the acute treatment of migraine in adolescents. Headache 2010;50(5):795–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Winner P, Lewis D, Visser WH, et al. Rizatriptan 5 mg for the acute treatment of migraine in adolescents: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Headache 2002;42:49–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Winner P, Pensky A, Linder S. Efficacy and safety of oral sumatriptan in adolescent migraines. Presented at: American Association for the Study of Headache meeting; Chicago. May 1996.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ueberall MA. Intranasal sumatriptan for the acute treatment of migraine in children. Neurology 1999; 52:1507–1510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Linder SL. Subcutaneous sumatriptan in the clinical setting: the first 50 consecutive patients with acute migraine in a pediatric neurology office practice. Headache 1996; 36:419–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Linder SL, Dowson AJ. Zolmitriptan provides effective migraine relief in adolescents. Int J Clin Pract 2000; 54:466–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lewis DW, Winner P, Hershey AD, Wasiewski WW. Efficacy of zolmitriptan nasal spray in adolescent migraine. Pediatrics 2007; 120:390–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hershey AD, Powers SW, Vockell AL, et al. Effectiveness of topiramate in the prevention of childhood headache. Headache 2002; 42:810–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Serdaroglu G, Erhan E, Tekgul, et al. Sodium valproate prophylaxis in childhood migraine. Headache 2002; 42:819–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Eiland LS, Jenkins LS, Durham SH. Pediatric migraine; pharmacologic agents for prophylaxis. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41:1181–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Damen L, Bruijn J, Verhagen AP, et al. Prophylactic treatment of migraine in children. A systematic review of pharmacological trials. Cephalalgia 2006; 26:497–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lewis DW, Diamond S, Scott D, Jones V. Prophylactic treatment of pediatric migraine. Headache 2004; 44:230–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hershey AD, Powers SW, Bentti AL, Degrauw TJ. Effectiveness of amitriptyline in the prophylactic management of childhood headaches. Headache 2000; 40:539–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Winner P, Gendolla A, Stayer C, et al. Topiramate for migraine prevention in adolescents: a pooled analysis of efficacy and safety. Headache 2006; 46:1503–1510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lakshmi CV, Singhi P, Malhi P, Ray M. Topiramate in the prophylaxis of pediatric migraine; a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Child Neurol 2007; 22:829–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lewis D, Winner P, Saper J, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topiramate for migraine prevention in pediatric subjects 12 to 17 years of age. Pediatrics. 2009; 123:924–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Apostol G, Lewis DW, Laforet GA, et al. Divalproex sodium extended-release for the prophylaxis of migraine headache in adolescents: results of a stand-alone, long-term open-label safety study. Headache 2009; 49:45–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Caruso JM, Brown WD, Exil G, Gascon GG. The efficacy of divalproex sodium in the prophylactic treatment of children with migraine. Headache 2000; 40:672–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Miller GS. Efficacy and safety of levetiracetam in pediatric migraine. Headache 2004; 44:238–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Pakalnis A, Kring D, Meier L. Levetiracetam prophlyaxis in pediatric migraine — an open label study. Headache 2007; 47:427–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Belman AL, Milazo M, Savatic M. Gabapentin for Migraine Prophylaxis in Children. Annals of Neurology 2001; 50 (Suppl 1):S109.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pakalnis A, Kring D. Zonisamide prophylaxis in refractory pediatric headache. Headache 2006; 46:804–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ludvigsson J. Propranolol used in prophylaxis of migraine in children. Acta Neurol Scand 1974; 50:109–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Forsythe WI, Gillies D, Sills MA. Propranolol (‘Inderal’) in the treatment of childhood migraine. Dev Med Child Neuro1984; 26:737–741.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Olness K, MacDonald JT, Uden DL. Comparison of Self-Hypnosis and Propranolol in the Treatment of Juvenile Classic Migraine. Pediatrics 1987; 79:593–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Noronha MJ. Double-blind randomized cross-over trial of timolol in migraine prophylaxis in children. Cephalalgia 1985; 5 (Suppl 3):174–175.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Battistella PA, Ruffilli R, Moro R, et al. A placebo-controlled crossover trial of nimodipine in pediatric migraine. Headache 1990; 30:264–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sorge F, Marano E, Flunarizine V. placebo in childhood migraine. A double-blind study. Cephalalgia 1985; 5 (Suppl 2):145–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sorge F, DeSimone R, Marano E, et al. Flunarizine in prophylaxis of childhood migraine. A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Cephalalgia 1988; 8:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Guidetti V, Moscato D, Ottaviano S, et al. Flunarizine and migraine in childhood an evaluation of endocrine function. Cephalalgia 1987; 7:263–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lewis DW, Middlebrook MT, Deline C. Naproxen Sodium for Chemoprophylaxis of Adolescent Migraine. Ann Neurol 36; 542:1994.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Norton J. Use of intravenous valproate sodium in status migraine. Headache 2000; 40:755–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Linder SL. Treatment of childhood headache with dihydroergotamine mesylate. Headache. 1994; 34:578–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Abu-Arefeh I, Russell G. Prevalence of headache and migraine in schoolchildren. BMJ 1994; 309:765–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lipton R, Stewart W. Prevalence and impact of migraine. Neurol. Clin 1997; 15:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Castillo J, Muñoz P, Guitera V, Pascual J. Kaplan Award 1998. Epidemiology of chronic daily headache in the general population. Headache 1999; 39:190–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Viswanathan V, Bridges SJ, Whitehouse W, Newton RW. Childhood headaches: discrete entities or continuum? Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998; 40:544–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mathew NT, Kurman R, Perez F. Drug-induced refractory headache-clinical features and management. Headache 1990; 30:634–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tietjen GE, Brandes JL, Digre KB, et al. History of childhood maltreatment is associated with co-morbid depression in women with migraine. Neurology 2007; 69:959–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Camarda R, Monastero R, Santangela G, et al. Migraine headaches in adolescents: a five year follow up study. Headache 2002; 42:1000–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kienbacher C, Wöber C, Zesch HE, et al. Clinical features, classification and prognosis of migraine and tension-type headache in children and adolescents: a long term follow up study. Cephalalgia 2006; 26:820–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Monastero R, Camarda C, Pipia C, Camarda R. Prognosis of migraine headaches in adolescents; a 10 year follow-up study. Neurology 2006; 67:1353–1356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Brna P, Dooley J, Gordon K, Dewan T. The prognosis of childhood headache; a 20 year follow up. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159:1157–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Healthcare, a part of Springer Science+Business Media 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald W. Lewis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics Children’s Hospital of The King’s DaughtersEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations