Parkinsonism Plus Syndromes

  • Fiona M. Molloy
  • Daniel G. Healy


Parkinson’s plus syndrome is a term that refers to disorders of movement and cognition that are often confused with Parkinson’s disease. The three main disorders are progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multisystem atrophy (MSA), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). These syndromes are pathologically diverse encompassing a number of distinct proteinopathies but have in common clinical features of movement abnormality, cognitive decline, a more rapid clinical course than Parkinson’s disease, and a generally poor therapeutic response to levodopa. The diagnosis is largely clinical with some reliable radiological features. Therapy is largely in the realm of multidisciplinary symptomatic support but advances in molecular and biological understanding is leading to exciting therapeutic avenues.


Corticobasal degeneration Mid brain atrophy Mulitsystem atropy Parkinson’s plus Pontocerebellar atrophy Shy-Drager syndrome Supranuclear palsy 

Further Reading

  1. Gilman S, et al. Second consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. Neurology. 2008; 71(9):670–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Golbe LI. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. In Watts RL, Koller WC eds. Movement Disorders Neurological Principles and Practice. Pa: McGraw-Hill; 1997: 279–297Google Scholar
  3. Lang AE, Riley DE, Bergeron C. Cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration. In: Calne DB, ed. Neurodegenerative Diseases. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994:877–94Google Scholar
  4. Litvan I et al, Clinical research criteria for the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome): report of the NINDS-SPSP international workshop. Neurology. 1996;47(1):1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Rebeiz JJ, Kolodny EH, Richardson EP Jr. Corticodentatonigral degeneration with neuronal achromasia. Arch Neurol. Jan 1968;18(1):20–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Reich SG, Grill SE. Corticobasal degeneration. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2009;11(3):179–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Williams DR, Lees AJ, What Features Improve the Accuracy of the Clinical Diagnosis of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy-parkinsonism (PSP-P). Movement Disorders 2010;25 (3): 357–362PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosciencesRoyal College of Surgeons in Ireland Medical SchoolDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations