Advertisement

Learning Legged Locomotion

  • Fumiya Iida
  • Simon Bovet

Legged locomotion of biological systems can be viewed as a self-organizing process of highly complex system℄environment interactions. Walking behavior is, for example, generated from the interactions between many mechanical components (e.g., physical interactions between feet and ground, skeletons and muscle-tendon systems), and distributed informational processes (e.g., sensory information processing, sensory-motor control in central nervous system, and reflexes) [21]. An interesting aspect of legged locomotion study lies in the fact that there are multiple levels of self-organization processes (at the levels of mechanical dynamics, sensory-motor control, and learning).

Previously, the self-organization of mechanical dynamics was nicely demonstrated by the so-called Passive Dynamic Walkers (PDWs; [18]). The PDW is a purely mechanical structure consisting of body, thigh, and shank limbs that are connected by passive joints. When placed on a shallow slope, it exhibits natural bipedal walking dynamics by converting potential to kinetic energy without any actuation. An important contribution of these case studies is that, if designed properly, mechanical dynamics can generate a relatively complex locomotion dynamics, on the one hand, and the mechanical dynamics induces self-stability against small disturbances without any explicit control of motors, on the other. The basic principle of the mechanical self-stability appears to be fairly general that there are several different physics models that exhibit similar characteristics in different kinds of behaviors (e.g., hopping, running, and swimming; [2, 4, 9, 16, 19]), and a number of robotic platforms have been developed based on them [1, 8, 13, 22].

Keywords

Mechanical Dynamic Robotic Platform Rough Terrain Quadruped Robot Legged Robot 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmadi, M., Buehler, M.: Controlled passive dynamic running experiments with ARL mono-pod II. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 22, 974–986 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexander, R.McN.: Three uses for springs in legged locomotion. International Journal of Robotics Research, 9, 53–61 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bedau, M.A., McCaskill, J.S., Packard, N.H., Rasmussen, S., Adami, C., Green, D.G., Ikegami, T., Kaneko, K., Ray, T.S.: Open problems in artificial life. Artificial Life 6, 363– 376 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blickhan, R., Seyfarth, A., Geyer, H., Grimmer, S., Wagner, H.: Intelligence by mechanics. Philosphical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences 365, 199–220 (2007)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bongard, J., Zykov, V., Lipson, H.: Resilient machines through continuous self-modeling. Science 314, 1118–1121 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bovet, S.: Robots with self-developing brains. Dissertation, University of Zurich (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buchli, J., Ijspeert, A.J.: Self-organized adaptive legged locomotion in a compliant quadruped robot. Autonomous Robots 25, 331–347 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Collins, S., Ruina, A., Tedrake, R., Wisse, M.: Efficient bipedal robots based on passive dynamic walkers. Science 307, 1082–1085 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dickinson, M.H., Farley, C.T., Full, R.J., Koehl, M.A.R., Kram, R., Lehman, S.: How animals move: An integrative view. Science 288, 100–106 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geng, T., Porr, B., Wörgötter, F.: A reflexive neural network for dynamic biped walking control. Neural Computation 18, 1156–1196 (2006)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Iida, F., Tedrake, R.: Optimization of motor control in underactuated one-legged locomotion. International Conference on Robotics and Systems (IROS 07), 2230–2235 (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Iida, F., Gomez, G.J., Pfeifer, R.: Exploiting body dynamics for controlling a running quadruped robot. Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Robotics (ICAR 2005), 229–235 (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Iida, F., Rummel, J., Seyfarth, A.: Bipedal walking and running with spring-like biarticular muscles. Journal of Biomechanics 41, 656–667 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ijspeert, A.J.: Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: A review. Neural Networks 21, 642–653 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kimura, H., Fukuoka, Y., Cohen, A.-H.: Biologically inspired adaptive walking of a quadruped robot. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences 365, 153–170 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kubow, T.M., Full, R.J.: The role of the mechanical system in control: A hypothesis of self-stabilization in hexapedal runners. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 354, 849–861 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matsubara, T., Morimoto, J., Nakanishi, J., Sato, M., Doya, K.: Learning CPG-based biped locomotion with a policy gradient method. Proceedings of 2005 5th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 208–213 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    McGeer, T.: Passive dynamic walking. The International Journal of Robotics Research 9, 62–82 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McMahon, T.A.: Muscles reflexes and locomotion. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (1984)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ogihara, N., Yamazaki, N. Generation of human bipedal locomotion by a bio-mimetic neuro-musculo-skeletal model. Biological Cybernetics 84, 1–11 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pfeifer, R., Lungarella, M., Iida, F.: Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics. Science 318, 1088–1093 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Raibert, H.M.: Legged robots that balance. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1986)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rummel J., Seyfarth A.: Stable running with segmented legs. International Journal of Robotics Research 27, 919–934 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sutton, R., Barto, A.: Reinforcement learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2000)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Taga, G., Yamaguchi, Y., Shimizu, H.: Self-organized control of bipedal locomotion by neural oscillators in unpredictable environment. Biological Cybernetics 65, 147–159 (1991)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tedrake, R., Zhang, T.W., Fong, M., Seung, H.S.: Actuating a simple 3D passive dynamic walker. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2004), 4656–4661 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fumiya Iida
    • 1
  • Simon Bovet
    • 2
  1. 1.Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Department of InformaticsUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations