Werner Ulrich has carried out pioneering work on a critical approach to systems thinking for over 25 years. Most importantly, he has developed a highly important and useful method for applying this approach, Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH). He has carried out his work in both academia and in government, and applied his ideas to issues as diverse as public planning, evaluation, reflective practice, the concept of citizenship and civil society, and environmental discourse. While acknowledging a “personal bias towards a more philosophically based, critical kind of systems thinking” (Ulrich 2005a, p. 8), his work is deeply practical. His goal may perhaps be summed up by the title of one of his articles: “systems thinking as if people mattered” (Ulrich 1998).
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