The term biofuel refers to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels are important as they affect a wide array of topics, including energy security, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, biosynthetic gas (biosyngas), bio-oil, biochar, Fischer–Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen.


Municipal Solid Waste Anaerobic Digestion Corn Stover Exhaust Emission Biogas Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aiba, S., Humphrey, A.E., Milis, N.F. 1973. Biochemical Engineering, 2nd ed.. Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  2. AICHE. 1997. Alternative transportation fuels: a comparative analysis. Report by AICHE Government Google Scholar
  3. Relations Committee. AICHE, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Dabbas, M.A.F. 1998. Reduction of methane emissions and utilization of municipal waste for energy in Amman. Renew Energy 14:427–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Augenstein, D., Pacey, J. 1991. Landfill methane models. Proceedings from the Technical Sessions of SWANA’s 29th Annual International Solid Waste Exposition, SWANA, Silver Spring, MD.Google Scholar
  6. Bala, B.K. 2005. Studies on biodiesels from transformation of vegetable oils for diesel engines. Energy Edu Sci Technol 15:1–45.Google Scholar
  7. Balat, M. 2008. Progress in biogas production processes. Energy Edu Sci Technol 22:15–35.Google Scholar
  8. Baltz, R.A., Burcham, A.F., Sitton, O.C., Book, N.L. 1982. The recycle of sulfuric acid and xylose in the prehydrolysis of corn stover. Energy 7:259–265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braber, K. 1995. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: A modern waste disposal option on the verge of breakthrough. Biomass Bioenergy 9:365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canakci, M., Erdil, A., Arcaklioglu, E. 2006. Performance and exhaust emissions of a biodiesel engine. Appl Energy 83:594–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chigier, N.A. 1981. Energy, combustion and the environment. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Davis, B.H. 2002. Overview of reactors for liquid phase Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Catal Today 71:249–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Demirbas, A. 2003. Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey. Energy Convers Manage 44:2093–2109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Demirbas, A. 2005. Potential applications of renewable energy sources, biomass combustion problems in boiler power systems and combustion related environmental issues. Progress Energy Combus Sci 31:171–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demirbas, A. 2006. Biogas potential of manure and straw mixtures. Energy Sources Part A 28:71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Demirbas, A. 2007. The influence of temperature on the yields of compounds existing in bio-oils obtaining from biomass samples via pyrolysis. Fuel Proc Technol 88: 591–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Demirbas, A. 2008a. Economic and environmental impacts of the liquid biofuels. Energy Edu Sci Technol 22:37–58.Google Scholar
  18. Demirbas, A. 2008b. Biodiesel: A realistic fuel alternative for diesel engines. Springer, London.Google Scholar
  19. Demirbas, A. 2008c. New liquid biofuels from vegetable oils via catalytic pyrolysis. Energy Edu Sci Technol 21:1–59.Google Scholar
  20. Demirbas, A., Ozturk, T. 2004. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural solid residues. Int J Gren Energy 1:483–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. A comprehensive analysis of biodiesel impacts on exhaust emissions. Draft Technical Report, EPA420-P-02-001, October 2002. EPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  22. EPA. 1994. Characterization of potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) components. Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1992 Update. EPA/530-R-94-042, NTS #PB 95-147690. Solid Waste and Emergency Response (5305). EPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  23. Erses, A.S., Onay, T.T. 2003. In situ heavy metal attenuation in landfills under methanogenic conditions. J Hazard Mat B99:159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kiely, G., Tayfur, G., Dolan, C., Tanji, K. 1997. Physical and mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. War Res 31:534–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim, S., Dale, B.E. 2005. Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: bioethanol and biodiesel. Biomass Bioenergy 29:426–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumar, A., Cameron, J.B., Flynn, P.C. 2005. Pipeline transport and simultaneous saccharification of corn stover. Biores Technol 96:819–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Laforgia, D., Ardito, V. 1994. Biodiesel fueled IDI engines: performances, emissions and heat release investigation. Biores Technol 51:53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ma, F., Hanna, M.A. 1999. Biodiesel production: a review. Biores Technol 70:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. May, M. 2003. Development and demonstration of Fischer–Tropsch fueled heavy-duty vehicles with control technologies for reduced diesel exhaust emissions. 9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Conference. Newport, Rhode Island, 24–28 Aug 2003.Google Scholar
  30. Metin, E., Erozturk, A., Neyim, C. 2003. Solid waste management practices and review of recovery and recycling operations in Turkey. Waste Manage 23:425–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meynell, P.-J. 1976. Methane: planning a digester. Schocken, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Micales, J.A., Skog, K.E. 1997. The decomposition of forest products in landfills. Int Biodeterioration Biodegradation 39:145–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Piel, W.J. 2001. Transportation fuels of the future? Fuel Proces Technol 71:167–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pinto, A.C., Guarieiro, L.L.N., Rezende, M.J.C., Ribeiro, N.M., Torres, E.A., Lopes, W.A., Pereira, P.A.P., Andrade, J.B. 2005. Biodiesel: an overview. J Brazil Chem Soc 16:1313–1330.Google Scholar
  35. Plaza, G., Robredo, P., Pacheco, O., Toledo, A.S. 1996. Anaerobic treatment of municipal solid waste. Water Sci Technol 33:169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Prins, M.J., Ptasinski, K.J., Janssen, F.J.J.G. 2004. Exergetic optimisation of a production process of Fischer–Tropsch fuels from biomass. Fuel Proc Technol 86:375–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. RFA (Renewable Fuels Association). 2007. Ethanol Industry Statistics. RFA, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  38. Schulz, H. 1999. Short history and present trends of FT synthesis. Appl Catal A General 186:1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sokhansanj, S., Turhollow, A., Cushman, J., Cundiff, J. 2002. Engineering aspects of collecting corn stover for bioenergy. Biomass Bioenergy 23:347–355. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Timur, H., Ozturk, I. 1999. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of landfill leachate. Water Res 33:3225–3230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Uygur, A., Kargi, F. 2004. Biological nutrient removal from pre-treated landfill leachate in a sequencing batch reactor. J Environ Manage 71: 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer London 2009

Personalised recommendations