Supporting Family Awareness with the Whereabouts Clock

  • Abigail Sellen
  • Alex S. Taylor
  • Joseph ‘Jofish’ Kaye
  • Barry Brown
  • Shahram Izadi
Chapter
Part of the Human-Computer Interaction Series book series (HCIS)

Abstract

We report the results of a field trial of a situated awareness device for families called the “Whereabouts Clock”. The Clock displays the location of family members using cellphone data as one of four privacy-preserving, deliberately coarse-grained categories (HOME, WORK, SCHOOL or ELSEWHERE). The results show that awareness of others through the Clock supports not only family communication and coordination but also more emotive aspects of family life such as reassurance, connectedness, identity and social touch. We discuss how the term “awareness” means many things in practice and highlight the importance of designing not just for family activities, but in order to support the emotional, social and even moral aspects of family life.

References

  1. Anderson, I. and Muller, H. (2006). Qualitative positioning for pervasive environments. Third International Conference on Mobile Computing and Ubiquitous Networking (ICMU 2006), London, UK, 10–18.Google Scholar
  2. Aronsson, K. (2006). Commentary 1. Doing family: An interactive accomplishment. Text & Talk, 26(4/5), 619–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell, G. and Dourish, P. (2007). Back to the shed: Gendered visions of technology and domesticity. Personal Ubiquitous Computing, 11(5), 373–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, B., Chalmers, M., Bell, M., Macoll, I. and Hall, M. (2005). Sharing the square: Collaborative leisure on the city streets. Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW '05). Kluwer, Dordrecht, 427–429.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, B., Taylor, A., Izadi, S., Sellen, A., Kaye, J. 'J.' and Eardley, R. (2007). Locating family values: A field trial of the Whereabouts Clock. Proceedings of the 9th Int'l Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2007). Insbruck, Austria, 354–371.Google Scholar
  6. Chen, M., Sohn, T., Chmelev, D., Haehnel, D., Hightower, J., Hughes, J. and LaMarca, A., Potter, F., Smith, I., and Varshavsky, A. (2006). Practical metropolitan-scale positioning for GSM phones. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp 2006), 225–242.Google Scholar
  7. Consolvo, S., Smith, I., Matthews, T., LaMarca, A., Tabert, J. and Powledge, P. (2005). Location disclosure to social relations: Why, when, and what people want to share. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '05). ACM Press, New York, NY, 81–90.Google Scholar
  8. Consolvo, S., Roessler, P. and Shelton, B. E. (2004). The CareNet display: Lessons learned from an in-home evaluation of an ambient display. Proceedings of the 6th Int'l Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp '04). ACM Press, New York, NY, 1–17.Google Scholar
  9. Cowan, R. S. (1983). More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Crabtree, A. and Rodden, T. (2004). Domestic routines and design for the home. Journal of CSCW, 13(2), 191–220.Google Scholar
  11. DeVault, M. L. (1994). Feeding the Family: The Social Organization of Caring as Gendered Work. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  12. Douglas, M. (1991). The idea of a home: A kind of space. Social Research, 58(1), 288–307.Google Scholar
  13. Dourish, P. and Bellotti, V. (1992). Awareness and coordination in shared workspaces. Proceedings of the 1992 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, (CSCW '92). ACM Press, New York, NY, 107–114.Google Scholar
  14. Gaver, W., Bowers, J., Boucher, A., Law, A., Pennington, S. and Villar, N. (2006). The History Tablecloth: Illuminating domestic activity. Proceedings of DIS 2006. University Park, PA.Google Scholar
  15. Grinter, R. E., Edwards, W. K., Newman, M. W. and Ducheneaut, N. (2005). The work to make the home network work. Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW '05). ACM Press, New York, NY, 469–488.Google Scholar
  16. Gubrium, J. (1988). The family as project. Sociological Review, 36, 273–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamilton, A. (2007). A wireless street fight. TIME Magazine, February 15th 2007, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Harper, R., Lamming, M. and Newman, W. (1992). Locating systems at work: Implications for the development of Active Badge applications. Interacting with Computers, 4(3), 343–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hindus, D., Mainwaring, S. D., Leduc, N., Hagström, A. E. and Bayley, O. (2001). Casablanca: Designing social communication devices for the home. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '01). ACM Press, New York, NY, 325–332.Google Scholar
  20. Highmore, B. (2004). Homework: Routine, social aesthetics, and the ambiguity of everyday life. Cultural Studies, 18(2–3), 306–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hutchinson, H., Mackay, W., Westerlund, B., Bederson, B., Druin, A., Plaisant, C., Beaudouin-Lafon, M., Conversy, S., Evans, H., Hansen, H., Roussel, N. and Eiderback, B. (2003). Technology probes: Inspiring design for and with families. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '03). ACM Press, New York, NY, 17–24.Google Scholar
  22. Iachello, G., Smith, I., Consolvo, S., Chen, M. and Abowd, G.(2005). Developing privacy guidelines for social location disclosure applications and services. Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS '05). ACM Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  23. March, W. and Fleuriot, C. (2006). Girls, technology and privacy: “Is my mother listening?”. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '06). ACM Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  24. Martin, B. (1984). Mother wouldn't like it!: Housework as magic. Theory, Culture & Society, 2(2), 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mynatt, E., Rowan, J., Jacobs, A. and Craighill, S. (2001). Digital family portraits: Supporting peace of mind for extended family members. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '01). ACM Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  26. Nardi, B. A., Whittaker, S. and Bradner, E. (2000). Interaction and outeraction: Instant messaging in action. Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, (CSCW '00). ACM Press, New York, NY, 78–88.Google Scholar
  27. O'Brien, J. and Rodden, T. (1997). Interactive systems in domestic environments. Proceedings of DIS '97, ACM, New York, NY, 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. O'Hara, K., Perry, M., Churchill, E. and Russell, D. (Eds.) (2003). Public and situated displays: Social and interactional aspects of shared display technologies. Springer, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  29. Plaisant, C., Clamage, A., Hutchinson, H. B., Bederson, B. B. and Druin, A. (September 2006). Shared family calendars: Promoting symmetry and accessibility. ACM Transactions on Computer–Human Interaction, 13(3), 313–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Romero, N., Markopoulos, P., Baren, J., Ruyter, B., Ijsselsteijn, W. and Farshchian, B. (2007). Connecting the family with awareness systems. Personal Ubiquitous Computing, 11(4), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sellen, A., Eardley, R., Izadi, S. and Harper, R. (2006a). The Whereabouts Clock: Early testing of a situated awareness device. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '06). ACM Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  32. Sellen, A., Harper, R., Eardley, R., Izadi, S., Regan, T., Taylor, A. S., Wood, K. R. (2006b). HomeNote: Supporting situated messaging in the home. Proceedings of the 2006 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, (CSCW '06). ACM Press, New York, NY, 383–392.Google Scholar
  33. Sheehan, E. and Edwards, W. K. (2007). Home networking and HCI: What hath god wrought? In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '07). ACM Press, New York, NY, 547–556.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, I. E., Consolvo, S., LaMarca, A., Hightower, J. and Scott, J. (2005). Social disclosure of place: From location technology to communication practices. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive'05), Munich, Germany, 134–151.Google Scholar
  35. Strong, R. and Gaver, B. (1996). Feather, scent and shaker: Supporting simple intimacy. In Videos, Proceedings of the 1996 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, (CSCW' 96). ACM Press, New York, NY, 29–30.Google Scholar
  36. Taylor, A. S. and Swan, L. (2005). Artful systems in the home. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '05). ACM Press, New York, NY, 641–650.Google Scholar
  37. Weiser, M. (1991). The computer for the 21st century. Scientific American, 265(3), 94–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wood, D. and Beck, R. J. (1994). Home rules. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  39. Woodruff, A., Augustin, S. and Foucault, B. (2007). Sabbath day home automation: “It's like mixing technology and religion”. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '07). ACM Press, New York, NY, 527–536.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abigail Sellen
    • 1
  • Alex S. Taylor
    • 1
  • Joseph ‘Jofish’ Kaye
    • 2
  • Barry Brown
    • 3
  • Shahram Izadi
    • 3
  1. 1.Microsoft ResearchCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Nokia Research CenterPalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.Dept. of CommunicationsUC San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations