Interdisciplinary Matchmaking: Choosing Collaborators by Skill, Acquaintance and Trust

  • Albert HupaEmail author
  • Krzysztof Rzadca
  • Adam Wierzbicki
  • Anwitaman Datta
Part of the Computer Communications and Networks book series (CCN)


Social networks are commonly used to enhance recommender systems. Most of such systems recommend a single resource or a person. However, complex problems or projects usually require a team of experts that must work together on a solution. Team recommendation is much more challenging, mostly because of the complex interpersonal relations between members. This chapter presents fundamental concepts on how to score a team based on members’ social context and their suitability for a particular project. We represent the social context of an individual as a three-dimensional social network (3DSN) composed of a knowledge dimension expressing skills, a trust dimension and an acquaintance dimension. Dimensions of a 3DSN are used to mathematically formalize the criteria for prediction of the team’s performance. We use these criteria to formulate the team recommendation problem as a multi-criteria optimization problem. We demonstrate our approach on empirical data crawled from two web2.0 sites: and a social networking site. We construct 3DSNs and analyze properties of team’s performance criteria.


Social Capital Recommender System Social Network Analysis Team Performance Closeness Centrality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This project has been supported by research grants no: 69/N-SINGAPUR/ 2007/0 and no: N N516 4307 33 of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and by Singapore A-STAR grant no: 072 134 0055.


  1. 1.
    Abdul-Rahman A, Hailes S (2000) Supporting trust in virtual communities. In: System sciences, 2000. Proceedings of the 33rd annual Hawaii international conference in 2000Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aral S, Van Alstyne MW (2008) Networks, information & social capital (formerly titled ’network structure & information advantage). SSRN eLibraryGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beauchamp M (1965) An improved index of centrality. Behav Sci 10:161–163Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonacich P (1972) Factoring and weighting approaches to status scores and clique identification. J Math Sociol 2:113–120Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bonacich P, Lloyd P (2004) Calculating status wih negative relations. Soc Networks 26:331–338Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borgatti S, Everett M (1996) Models of core/periphery structures. In: Sunbelt international social networks conference, Charleston, SCGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borgatti SP (2004) Social network measures of social capital. A methodological perspective. PDF via WWWGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bourdieu P, Wacquant LJ (1992) An invitation to reflexive sociology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bourdieu P, Passeron JC (1977) Reproduction in education, society, culture. Sage, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burt RS (1983) Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, pp 176–194Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burt RS (1992) Structural holes. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burt RS (2001) Structural holes versus network closure as social capital. In: Lin N, Cook K, Burt RS (eds) Social capital. Theory and research, chap. 2, Aldine Transaction, New York, pp 31–56Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Coleman J (1990) Foundations of social theory. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Contractor N, Monge P (2002) Managing knowledge networks. Manage Commun Quart 16:249–258Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cummings J (2004) Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization. Manage Sci 50:352–364Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cummings J, Cross R (2003) Structural properties of work groups and their consequences for performance. Soc Networks 25:197–210Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dalkir K (2005) Knowledge management in theory and practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Davis S, Botkin J (1998) The coming of knowledge-based business. In: Neef D (ed) The knowledge economy. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Deutsch M (1973) The resolution of conflict. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dunn W, Ginnsberg A (1986) A sociogonitive network approach to organizational analysis. Hum Relat 40:955–976Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ehrlich K, Lin C, Griffiths-Fisher V (2007) Searching for experts in the enterprise: Combining text and social network analysis. In: Proceedings of the 2007 international ACM conference on conference on supporting group work. ACM, pp 117–126Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eisenberg E, Monge P (1987) Handbook of organizational communication, chap. Emergence communication networks. Sage, Newbury Park, CA, pp 304–342Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fiol C (1989) A semantic analysis of corporate language: Organizational boudaries and joint venturing. Admin Sci Quart 34:277–303Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fleming L, Mingo S, Chen D (2007) Collaborative brokerage, generative creativity & creative success. Admin Sci Quart 52:443–475Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Freeman LC (1977) A set of measures of centrality based on betweenness. Sociometry 40:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fukuyama F (1996) Trust: The social virtus and the creation of prosperity. Free Press, Pigden, NYGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Genesereth M, Fikes R, et al (1992) Knowledge Interchange Format, Version 3.0 Reference ManualGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Granovetter M (1973) The strength of weak ties. Am J Sociol 78:1360–80Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gruber T (1993) A translation approach to portable ontology specifications. Knowledge Acquis 5(2):199–220Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gruber T (2007) Ontology of folksonomy: A mash-up of apples and oranges. Int J Semantic Web Info Syst 3(2)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hansen M (1999) The search-transfer problem: The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits. Admin Sci Quart 44:82–111Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hansen M (2002) Knowledge networks: Explaining effective knowledge sharing in multiunit companies. Organ Sci 13:232–248Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Harary F (1969) Graph theory. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Johnson HG (1960) The political economy of opulence. Can J Econ Polit Sci 26:552–564Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jones G, George J (1998) The experience and evolution of trust: Implications for co-operation and teamwork. Acad Manage Rev 23(3):531–546Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Josang A, Keser C, Dimitrakos T (2005) Can we manage trust? In: Trust Management (iTrust 2005), LNCS, vol 3477. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kamvar S, Schlosser M, Garcia-Molina H (2003) The eigentrust algorithm for reputation management in p2p networks. In: WWW2003. ACM, pp 20–24Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kautz H, Selman B, Shah M (1997) Referral Web: Combining social networks and collaborative filtering. Commun ACM 40(3):63–65Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Keim T (2007) Extending the applicability of recommender systems: A multilayer framework for matching human resources. In: Proceedings of the 40th annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences. IEEE Computer Society Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Klimecki R, Lassleben H () What causes organizations to learn? In: Third international conference on organizational learning, 6–8th June 1999, Lancaster University, UKGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lin N (2001) Building a network theory of social capital. In: Lin N, Cook K, Burt RS (eds) Social capital. Theory and research, chap. 1, Aldine Transaction, pp 3–29Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Malinowski J, Weitzel T, Keim T (2008) Decision support for team staffing: An automated relational recommendation approach. Decis Support Syst 45(3):429–447 DOI Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marsden P (1988) Homogeneity in confiding relations. Soc Networks 10:57–76Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Marsh SP (1994) Formalising trust as a computational concept. PhD thesis, University of StirlingGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Marx K (1995) In: McLellan D (ed) Capital: A new abridgement. Oxfod University PressGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    McAllister D (1995) Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Acad Manage J 38:24–59Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    McDonald D, Ackerman M (2000) Expertise recommender: A flexible recommendation system and architecture. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work. ACM, pp 231–240Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Monge P, Contractor N (2003) Theories of communication networks. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Newman M, Barabasi A, Watts D (2006) The structure and dynamics of networks. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nonaka I, Takeuchi H (1995) The knowledge-creating company: How Japanesee companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxfod University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Putnam R (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon & SchusterGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Putnam R (2003) Better together: Restoring the American community. Simon & SchusterGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Reagans R, McEvily B (2003) Network structure & knowledge transfer: The effects of cohesion & range. Admin Sci Quart 48:240–267Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Richardson M, Agrawal R, Domingos P (2003) Trust management for the semantic web. In: Proceedings of the second international semantic web conference, pp 351–368Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rodan S, Galunic D () More than network structure: How knowledge heterogeneity influences managerial performance & innovativeness. Strategic Manage J 25:541–562Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schultz TW (1961) Investment in human capital. Am Econ Rev LI(1):1–17Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shami N, Ehrlich K, Millen D (2008) Pick me!: link selection in expertise search results. In: Proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. ACMGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sztompka P (1999) Trust: A sociological theory. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sztompka P (2007) Zaufanie. Fundament Spoeczestwa (Trust. A foundation of society). Wydawnictwo ZnakGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Terveen L, McDonald DW (2005) Social matching: A framework and research agenda. ACM Trans Comput Hum Interact 12(3):401–434 DOI Scholar
  61. 61.
    Uzzi B (1996) The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: The network effect. Am Sociol Rev 61:674–698Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Uzzi B (1997) Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Admin Sci Quart 42:35–67Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Valente T (1995) Network models of the diffusion of information. Hampton Pres, Cresskill, NJGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wal TV Folksonomy coinage and definition. Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wasserman S, Faust K (1999) Social network analysis. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wierzbicki AP (1984) A mathematical basis for satisficing decision making. Math Model 3:391–405MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wierzbicki AP, Makowski M, Wessels J (2000) Model based decision support methodology with environmental applications. Kluwer, DoordrechtCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhou R, Hwang K (2007) Powertrust: A robust and scalable reputation system for trusted peer-to-peer computing. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 18(4):460–473Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Hupa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Krzysztof Rzadca
    • 2
  • Adam Wierzbicki
    • 3
  • Anwitaman Datta
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Applied Social SciencesUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland
  2. 2.School of Computer EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Polish-Japanese Institute of Information TechnologyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations