Non-invasive diagnosis

  • David E Neal


Non-invasive testing for bladder cancer has been carried out for many years by means of urine testing for blood, the presence of malignant cells on cytological examination and assessment of DNA ploidy in voided urine or bladder washings.


Bladder Cancer Transitional Cell Carcinoma Invasive Bladder Cancer Urine Cytology Nuclear Matrix Protein 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • David E Neal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oncology, University of CambridgeAddenbrooke’s HospitalCambridgeUK

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