Renal Cell Carcinoma pp 3-22

Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)

Etiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Incidence, Demographics, and Environmental Factors

  • Frédéric D. Birkhäuser
  • Nils Kroeger
  • Allan J. Pantuck
Chapter

Abstract

The worldwide incidence of kidney cancer has been increasing for many years likely as a consequence of numerous factors, including the increased utilization of abdominal imaging with an increased incidental diagnosis of small renal tumors, the aging of the population, and the increased prevalence of environmental and lifestyle risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A wide variability in geographic, gender, and ethnic differences has been observed relative to RCC around the world, with tobacco use, obesity, and hypertension emerging as the primary environmental factors that predispose to RCC.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frédéric D. Birkhäuser
    • 1
  • Nils Kroeger
    • 1
  • Allan J. Pantuck
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Institute of Urologic OncologyUniversity of California-Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

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