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The Menopause and Oxidative Stress

  • Lucky H. Sekhon
  • Ashok AgarwalEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)

Abstract

Reproductive aging resulting in menopause is characterized by the permanent cessation of ovarian follicular activity. The signs and symptoms resulting from estrogen withdrawal can significantly disrupt a woman’s activities of daily living and sense of well being, while predisposing them to osteoporosis and heart disease. Current medical therapies are targeted at symptomatic relief or alleviating the hormonal deficiency itself to prevent its harmful sequelae. The progressive loss of estrogen and its protective effects, combined with deficient endogenous antioxidant, results in oxidative stress—which is implicated in the pathogenesis of vasomotor disturbances, loss of bone mass, and heart disease in menopause. The link between oxidative stress and estrogen deficiency has been demonstrated by numerous studies. Based on this, hormonal replacement therapy, antioxidant supplementation, and lifestyle modification have been investigated for their efficacy and safety in the treatment and prevention of menopause-related symptoms and chronic disease processes.

Keywords

Reproductive aging  Menopause Antioxidant vitamins  Deficient endogenous antioxidant  Loss of estrogen  Herbal extracts  Vitamin C  Vitamin E  Vitamin A  Phytoestrogens  Curcuma longa  Lycopene  Grape polyphenols  Melatonin 

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mount Sinai School of Medicine, OB/GYNNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Center for Reproductive MedicineClevelandUSA

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