Cocoa and Its By-Products: Identification and Utilization

  • Emmanuel O. K. Oddoye
  • Christian K. Agyente-Badu
  • Esther Gyedu-Akoto
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH, volume 7)

Key Points

  • Cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) may be made into a fruit drink either alone or in combination with other fruit juices. It may also be used for making jam and marmalade. Moreover, commercial-grade pectin may also be extracted from it.

  • Fermentation of the sugars in cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) leads to the production of alcoholic drinks (gin and brandy) and also the production of wine and vinegar.

  • Dried cocoa pod husk may be used as a feed ingredient for poultry (10%), pigs (25%), and sheep (40%). Fresh/wet pod husk has been fed to pigs at 300 g/kg of the ration. Fermentation of cocoa pod husk with Pleurotus ostreatus improved its feeding value and increased its usage in broiler finisher diets to 20%.

  • The ash produced when sun-dried cocoa pod husk is burnt contains about 40% potash, which can be used as the alkali for the making of soft soap and liquid soap. The ash may also be converted into a potassium-rich fertilizer by adding starch and then pelletizing the mixture.

  • Cocoa butter can be extracted from discarded cocoa beans and may be used in the production of toilet soap, soft soap, and body pomade.

  • A feasibility study, conducted as part of the ICCO/CFC/COCOBOD-funded cocoa by-products project, indicated that there is the potential for cocoa farmers to enhance their incomes through the processing of cocoa waste into the developed by-products.

Keywords

Cocoa pulp juice (sweating) Cocoa pod husk Fruit drink Jam Marmalade Pectin Gin Brandy Wine Vinegar Animal feed Liquid soap Soft soap Toilet soap 

References

  1. 1.
    Appiah MR. Introduction to technical presentations by Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-Products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 22–5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Knapp AW. Cocoa and chocolate: their history from plantation to consumer. London: Chapman and Hall; 1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Knapp AW, Churchman A. Cocoa shell and its use as accessory fodder. J Soc Chem Ind Lond. 1937;56:29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adomako D. A review of researches into the commercial utilization of cocoa by-products with particular reference to the prospects in Ghana. CMB Newsl. 1975;61:12–20.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lopez AS, Pereira HIS, Llamosas A, et al. Present status of cacao by-products utilization in Brazil. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1984; Lome. p. 425–32.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dwapanyin AO, Adomako D, Tetteh JP. The sugar content of cocoa sweatings and the effect of pressing the sweatings prior to fermentation on bean quality. Ghana J Biochem Mol Biol. 1991;1:109–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adomako D, Takrama JFK. Large–scale collection of cocoa bean pulp juice sweatings. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1996; Salvador, Bahia; 1999. p. 1033–40.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gyedu E, Oppong H. Cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) and its potential for soft drink, jam and marmalade production. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 37–40.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anvoh KYB, Zoro BA, Gnakri D. Production and characterization of juice from mucilage of cocoa beans and its transformation into marmalade. Pak J Nutr. 2009;8(2):129–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Greenwood-Barton L. Cocoa beans and cocoa pods: have they any unconventional uses? In: FAO technical working party on cocoa: production and projection. 1st Session. Rome, 1964 Sept 7–11. Working Paper 67.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Adomako D. Cocoa pod husk pectin. Phytochemistry. 1972;11:1145–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adomako D. Chemical characterization of cocoa pectin. Chem Ind. 1974;1974:873–4.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Selamat J, Yosof S, Jimbuh M, et al. Development of juice from cocoa pulp. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Malaysian International Cocoa Conference; 1994. p. 351–57.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adomako D. Cocoa products and by-products research: utilisation of cocoa pulp juice. ANN.REP, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. 1972/73, 1975. p. 41–142.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Agyeman KOG. Pilot plant studies on collection of cocoa sweatings and production of fermentation products from cocoa sweatings [M.Sc. thesis]. Kumasi: University of Science and Technology; 1976.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Takrama JFK, Adomako D. Production of cocoa gin and brandy. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 64–9.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Agyente-Badu CK, Adomako D, Asante EG. Development of wine from cocoa pulp juice. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 48–52.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Agyente-Badu CK, Takrama JFK, Appiah MR. Development of pilot-scale process for the production of vinegar from cocoa pulp juice (sweating). Technical report submitted to FAO, Rome. 2001Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Agyente-Badu CK, Adomako D, Asante EG. Production of vinegar from cocoa pulp juice. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 53–7.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Falaye AE, Jauncey K. Acceptability and digestibility by tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of feeds containing cocoa husk. Acquacult Nutr. 1999;5:157–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sobamiwa O. Use of cocoa pod husk in poultry feeds: a particular reference to the Nigerian situation. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1993; Yamoussoukro. p. 797–801.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Donkoh A, Atuahene CC, Wilson BN, et al. Chemical composition of cocoa pod husk and its effects on growth and food efficiency in broiler chicks. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1991;35:161–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Okai DB, Easter RA, Frank GR. The nutritive value of some non-conventional Ghanaian feed ingredients; nutrient composition and effects on performance of weanling rats. World Rev Anim Prod. 1984;20(23):11–6.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alemawor A, Oddoye EOK, Dzogbefia VP, Oldham JH, Donkoh A. Broiler performance on finisher diets containing different levels of either Pleurotus ostreatus-fermented dried cocoa pod husk or dried cocoa pod husk supplemented with enzymes. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:933–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kimura K. Manufacturing procedure of natural pigment from cacao bean. Japanese Patent no. Showa 54–10567 1979.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Adamafio NA, Dosoo DK, Aggrey EC, et al. Effect of corn stalk ash extract on oxalate and tannin levels in crop residues. In: Proceedings of the 13th Faculty of Science Colloquium, University of Ghana; 2003.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Figueira A, Janick J, BeMiller JN. New products from Theobroma cacao: seed pulp and pod gum. In: Janick J, Simon JE, editors. New crops. New York: Wiley; 1993. p. 475–8.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Atuahene CC, Adams C, Adomako D. Cocoa pod husk in diets of broiler chickens. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1984; Lome; 1985. p. 495–500.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Barnes AR, Amega WK, Manu M, et al. Utilization of cocoa husk meal by growing-finishing pigs. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1984; Lome; 1985. p. 449–54.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boa-Amponsem K, Agudu EW, Manu M. Effect of cocoa pod husk on broiler performance. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1984; Lome; 1985. p. 501–03.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Okai DB, Osafo ELK, Adomako D. Effects of different levels of cocoa pod husk on performance and carcass characteristics of finisher pigs. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1984; Lome; 1985. p. 455–59.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tuah AK, Dzoagbe S, Adomako D. Evaluation of cocoa pod husk as feed ingredient for sheep in Ghana. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1984; Lome; 1985. p. 505–10.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Adomako D, Tuah AK. Digestibility of cocoa pod husk pectin polysaccharides by sheep fed rations containing cocoa pod husk. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1987; Santa Domingo, Dominican Republic; 1988. p. 853–56.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Osei SA, Atuahene CC, Heathcote D, et al. Cocoa pod and husk meal as a feed ingredient in layer diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1991;35:283–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Osei SA, Sarpong PK, Adomako D, et al. Response of laying chickens fed graded levels of cocoa pod and husk meal. J Univ Sci Technol. 1991;15:5–8.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Otchere EO, Musah IA, Bafi-Yeboah M. The digestibility of cocoa husk based diets fed to sheep. Trop Anim Prod. 1983;8:33–8.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Olubamiwa O, Otun AR, Longe OG. Dietary inclusion rate of cocoa husk for starter cockerels. Int J Poult Sci. 2002;1(5):133–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Smith OB, Adegbola AA. Studies on the feeding value of agro-industrial by-products for livestock. III. Digestibility of cocoa pod and cocoa pod-based diets by ruminants. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1985;13:249–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Smith OB, Osafo ELK, Adegbola AA. Studies on the feeding value of agro-industrial by-products: strategies for improving the utilization of cocoa pod-based diets by ruminants. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1988;20(3):189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sobamiwa O. Use of cocoa pod husk in poultry feeds: a particular reference to the Nigerian situation. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1993; Yamoussoukro; 1994. p. 797–801.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sobamiwa O. Performance and egg quality of laying hens fed cocoa husk-based diets. Niger J Anim Prod. 1998;25:22–4.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sobamiwa O, Longe OG. Utilization of coca pod pericarp fractions in broiler chick diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1998;37:237–44.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Afolami CA, Eruvbetine D. Economics of substituting cocoa pod husk for maize in livestock feeds: the Nigerian case. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1993; Yamoussoukro; 1994. p. 803–07.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Alawa JP, Umunna NN. Alternative feed formulation in the developing countries: prospects for utilization of agro-industrial by-products. J Anim Prod Res. 1993;13:63–98.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    More to cocoa than the bean. http://www.new-agri.co.uk/99-2/focuson/focuson6.html. Accessed 13 June 2011.
  46. 46.
    Tuah AK, Orskov ER. A study on the degradation of untreated, ammonia-treated, sodium hydroxide-treated and water soaked corncob and cocoa pod husk in the rumen using the nylon bag technique. In: Proceedings of the 4th African Research Network for Agricultural By-products Workshop; 1987; Bamenda, Cameroon; 1989. p. 363–70.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tuah AK. Utilization of agricultural by-products for village and commercial production of sheep rations in Ghana. Proceedings of the 1st Joint Pastures Network for Eastern and Southern Africa/African Research Network for Agricultural By-products (PANESA/ARNAB) Workshop; 1988; Lilongwe, Malawi. http://www.ilri.org/Infoserv/Webpub/Fulldocs/X5536e/x5536e04.htm. Accessed 15 June 2011.
  48. 48.
    Alemawor F, Dzogbefia VP, Oddoye EOK, et al. Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus fermentation on cocoa pod husk composition: influence of fermentation period and Mn2+ supplementation on the fermentation process. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(9):1950–8.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Alemawor F, Dzogbefia VP, Oddoye EOK, et al. Enzyme cocktail for enhancing poultry utilization of cocoa pod husk. Sci Res Essay. 2009;4(6):555–9.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oddoye EOK, Rhule SWA, Agyente-Badu K, et al. Fresh cocoa pod husk as an ingredient in the diets of growing pigs. Sci Res Essay. 2010;5(10):1141–4.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Adomako D. Recent developments in cocoa by-products research in Ghana. Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1997; Venezuela; 1998. p. 706–18.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Agyente-Badu CK, Gyedu E, Oppong H. Production of local soft soap (Alata samina) from cocoa pod husk. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 41–3.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ahenkorah Y, Appiah MR, Halm BJ, et al. Production and utilization of cocoa pod husk as a source of potash for fertilizer. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Cocoa Research Conference; 1987; Santa Domingo; 1988. p. 843–48.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Oladokun MAO. Use of cocoa pod husk as fertilizer for maize production. Niger J Agron. 1986;1:103–9.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Agyente-Badu CK, Adomako D, Asante EG. Development of cocoa butter-based toilet soap. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 44–7.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Agyente-Badu CK, Esther Gyedu, Adomako D, et al. Development of cocoa butter-based pomade. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 35–6.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ayinde OE, Ojo V, Adeina AA, et al. Economics of using cocoa bean shell as feed supplement for rabbits. Pak J Nutr. 2010;9(2):195–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sukha DA. Potential value added products from Trinidad and Tobago cocoa. In: Proceedings of the Seminar/Exhibition on the Revitalization of the Trinidad and Tobago Cocoa Industry – targets, problems and options, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine; 2003 Sept 20. p. 69–73.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vitasoil. (2003). Cocoa shell mulch. http://www.vitasoil.com.cocoa%20main.htm. Accessed 15 June 2011.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hansen S, Trammel H, Dunayer E, et al. Cocoa bean pulp as mulch: methylxanthine toxicosis in dogs. ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, Urbana, IL. http://www.aspcapro.org/mydocuments/cocoa-mulch.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2011.
  61. 61.
    Sabariah S, Fisal A, Yap SKC. R & D on cocoa by-product development in Malaysian Cocoa Board. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 80–7.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brewer A. Summary report on the feasibility study on pilot plants to process cocoa by-products. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Cocoa By-products in Ghana; 2003 July 14–16; La-Palm Royal Hotel, Accra. p. 70–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuel O. K. Oddoye
    • 1
  • Christian K. Agyente-Badu
    • 1
  • Esther Gyedu-Akoto
    • 1
  1. 1.New Products Development Unit, Department of Cocoa ResearchInstitute of GhanaNew Tafo-AkimGhana

Personalised recommendations